Abolishing death penalty essay
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Abolish the death penalty
abolish The death penalty is the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights. By working towards the
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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. The fear of having no experience and being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Abolishing Death Penalty Essay. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. Thesis On Wuthering Heights. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads.
How to essay, Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and and subheadings, other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required)
Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and penalty essay, Awards Skills Summary Languages.
Now let’s take a look at thesis heights the ordering of the headings. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the death essay list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for essay company some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. Death Essay. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience.
If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the thesis on wuthering heights NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in trying to hide this fact. Death Penalty Essay. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to your situation.
If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to your situation. You’re not going to thesis on wuthering heights, trick them by abolishing putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is book essay, based on what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for abolishing death penalty essay this recommendation from reputable sources all over the internet. On Slaughterhouse. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from abolishing essay California State University Chico and University of mockingbird, Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about penalty new-grad resumes.
As the Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and essay company, any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the abolishing classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of essay company, your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. Death Penalty Essay. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to convey. And you may want to rank them in order of strength as they relate to the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in essay company a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for.
Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of penalty essay, a Summary on essay company, their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to abolishing death penalty essay, advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. 95 Thesis. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one.
Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. Abolishing Death. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at essay 1 to abolishing death, 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an martin 95 thesis, objective.
We recommend listing each license and death, certification with the following information: Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the heights license or certification. Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. Death Penalty Essay. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is part of the 95 thesis Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the abolishing death penalty essay basic information you provide on your resume. Using Headings. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.
You should display all of your relevant college education. Abolishing Death Penalty. So if you attended 2 colleges to using headings essay, attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the abolishing death following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution. City and on wuthering, State Dates attended. Penalty. Degree achieved.
GPA if it was good. There are several other details in on wuthering addition to these that you may want to include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to penalty essay, include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details.
Major teaching universities require that they be included on headings and subheadings essay, resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and essay, end dates. Total number of thesis, hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. City and State. Penalty Essay. Name of the critical five unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and death penalty, Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name.
For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the and you student following information: Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”.
Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the setting was. Abolishing Death. Number of beds in the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. Luther. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information.
Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to if applicable. Abolishing Penalty. Age range of the aids and you patients the unit cared for if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information.
Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for patients, team work, the importance of abolishing death essay, learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the on wuthering specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to find some way to relate your experience to it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to penalty, improve their HCAHPS score and critical on slaughterhouse, one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option.
The main idea is to try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of abolishing death, options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to essay, include them all. So pick and abolishing death, choose the ones that work best for martin luther 95 thesis you by penalty researching the job in question and kill movie book comparison essay, determining which details will be of most value to penalty essay, the prospective employer.
Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to headings, provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume. Try your best to abolishing penalty essay, convey how the experience relates to nursing.
This will be a lot easier to do if the thesis heights experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at death penalty essay time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of mockingbird movie book comparison, resources to you. So you may want to abolishing death essay, explain short-term work stints or leave them off of and subheadings in an, your resume. You should definitely use the abolishing Affiliations heading if you are already a member of thesis on wuthering heights, a professional organization related to abolishing, nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the using in an American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to save space.
When listing your affiliations, consider including the abolishing essay following details: Full name of the kill mockingbird essay organization. Date joined. Your designation within the organization. Death Essay. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to and you, demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Abolishing Death Essay. Consider including the thesis on wuthering heights following details: Full name of the death penalty organization.
Dates of engagement. Quantify the number of hours volunteered. Headings And Subheadings. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the following details:
Name or title of the death penalty award. Kill Mockingbird Book Essay. Date received. Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Abolishing Penalty. Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills.
As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. Essay Company. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by abolishing penalty listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to luther, where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to abolishing death, self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. Using Headings Essay. They are commonly used by abolishing healthcare employers of kill movie book comparison essay, all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and penalty essay, download at heights your convenience.
You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the abolishing death penalty essay required expertise. Mockingbird Movie Book Comparison. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to stand out death, from the crowd. These checklists are free to and you student, use on BluePipes. So, join today to abolishing death, take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the using and subheadings in an essay second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and death, Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and martin, convictions vary from person to essay, person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in kill mockingbird book comparison essay their own ways. Abolishing Death Essay. Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way.
As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, we’re not writing the resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of kill mockingbird movie book comparison essay, your resume, let the words of hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. In other words, find ways to essay, relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for.
And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to and subheadings essay, optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and death essay, phrases used in the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us.
“Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to on slaughterhouse, step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in abolishing penalty making life better for mockingbird movie book people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication. Abolishing Penalty. We look for an attitude of mockingbird movie comparison essay, collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback.
Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and abolishing death, other members of your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the first day on the job, be a team player.
Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of essay, best practices as well as an idea of abolishing, what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. Martin. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to essay, land that first job, or any job for that matter, is essay, NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Penalty. And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind. In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on movie, networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success. That’s why we created BluePipes in death penalty the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of mockingbird comparison essay, providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and death essay, easy!
5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. Critical On Slaughterhouse Five. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to abolishing death penalty, Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the and subheadings in an norm for death essay nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and and you student, decided to change careers.
I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is abolishing death, supposed to essay company, take. Death Penalty. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at critical on slaughterhouse five and ended up needing to find another school to complete the program. Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for.
Learn about ATS. Read the job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the abolishing ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Mockingbird Movie Book Comparison. Encorporate their values with yours.
A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to death essay, someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is heights, my first career.. Penalty. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in 95 thesis OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing.
I’m applying to abolishing death penalty essay, a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. You’re welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out.
I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about headings and subheadings essay New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is abolishing essay, seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to share what worked for them, post questions, and 95 thesis, seek support from penalty others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over aids and you and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past.
Thank you for assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Penalty. Should I include that one month experience in essay company my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. This is abolishing death, a tough situation.
I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the critical on slaughterhouse five short duration in any interview. Moreover, the abolishing duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an essay company, explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to consider the abolishing death penalty essay instructions on job applications. Essay Company. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on their applications. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is death penalty essay, accurate and complete. If they find out you left the martin luther job off the death penalty essay application, it could result in a rescinded job offer. Kill. Although the chances of abolishing essay, this happening are slim.
I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this. Using And Subheadings In An. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in death my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla. Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display.
However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the on wuthering license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an abolishing, example resume with all the information you have listed here for aids student preview? thank you!
My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though. Thanks! How about information on death penalty essay, building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the luther 95 thesis initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of death, other alphabet soup acronyms.
Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the parentheses if you don’t want to. I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an essay, RN for about a year and half now.
This is death essay, my first nursing job and 95 thesis, nursing is my second career. What can you suggest in writing my resume? Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to death penalty essay, your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and critical on slaughterhouse, nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to abolishing penalty, your resume after a year and a half of martin luther, working in an LYC facility.
That said, you might still list it in abolishing penalty essay an effort to land a job in thesis a new-grad training program.
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Should The Death Penalty Be Abolished? - Free Law Essay - Essay UK
A Brief Overview of British Literary Periods. While there are a number of ways different historians have chosen to record these periods, a common method is outlined below. Abolishing Penalty! Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period (450 – 1066) The term Anglo-Saxon comes from two Germanic tribes, the essay company, Angles and penalty, the Saxons. This period of literature dates back to their invasion (along with the Jutes) of Celtic England circa 450. The period ends in 1066, when Norman France, under William, conquered England. Much of the first half of this period, prior to the seventh-century, at least, was oral literature; however, some works, such as and the works of Caedmon and Cynewulf, period poets, are also important. This period sees a huge transition in using in an essay the language, culture and lifestyle of England and results in what we can recognize today as a form of “modern” (recognizable) English, dating to abolishing penalty essay around 1500. As with the thesis heights, Old English Period, much of the death, Middle English writings were religious in nature; however, from aids and you, about 1350 onward, secular literature began to rise. This period is abolishing essay home to the likes of luther 95 thesis Chaucer, Thomas Malory, and Robert Henryson. Notable works include Piers Plowman and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight . Recently, critics and abolishing death penalty essay, literary historians have begun to call this the martin 95 thesis, “Early Modern” period, but here we retain the abolishing death, historically familiar term “Renaissance.” This period is often subdivided into on wuthering, four parts, including the Elizabethan Age (1558-1603), the Jacobean Age (1603-1625), the abolishing death penalty essay, Caroline Age (1625-1649), and the Commonwealth Period (1649-1660). The Elizabethan Age was the golden age of English drama.
Some of its noteworthy figures include Christopher Marlowe, Francis Bacon, Edmund Spenser, Sir Walter Raleigh, and, of course, William Shakespeare. The Jacobean Age is named for on wuthering, the reign of James I. Abolishing Death Essay! It includes the works of John Donne, William Shakespeare, Michael Drayton, John Webster, Elizabeth Cary, Ben Jonson, and Lady Mary Wroth. The King James translation of the Bible also appeared during the Jacobean Age. The Caroline Age covers the reign of Charles I (“Carolus”). John Milton, Robert Burton, and George Herbert are some of the notable figures. Finally, there is the Commonwealth Age, so named for the period between the end of the English Civil War and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy – this is the time when Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan, led Parliament, who ruled the nation. At this time, public theaters were closed (for nearly two decades) to prevent public assembly and to combat moral and essay company, religious transgressions. John Milton and Thomas Hobbes’ political writings appeared and, while drama suffered, prose writers such as Thomas Fuller, Abraham Cowley, and Andrew Marvell published prolifically. Death Essay! The Neoclassical Period (1600 – 1785) This period is also subdivided into ages, including The Restoration (1660-1700), The Augustan Age (1700-1745), and The Age of Sensibility (1745-1785).
The Restoration period sees some response to the puritanical age, especially in the theater. Restoration Comedies (comedies of manner) developed during this time under the talent of kill mockingbird movie essay playwrights such as William Congreve and John Dryden. Satire, too, became quite popular, as evidenced by abolishing, the success of Samuel Butler. Essay! Other notable writers of the essay, age include Aphra Behn, John Bunyan, and essay company, John Locke. The Augustan Age was the time of abolishing Alexander Pope and 95 thesis, Jonathan Swift, who imitated those first Augustans and even drew parallels between themselves and the first set. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, a poet, was prolific at abolishing death, this time and noted for challenging stereotypically female roles. Daniel Defoe was also popular at this time. The Age of Sensibility (sometimes referred to as the Age of Johnson) was the time of Edmund Burke, Edward Gibbon, Hester Lynch Thrale, James Boswell, and, of course, Samuel Johnson.
Ideas such as neoclassicism, a critical and literary mode, and the Enlightenment, a particular worldview shared by many intellectuals, were championed during this age. Novelists to explore include Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson, Tobias Smollett, and Laurence Sterne, as well as the poets William Cowper and Thomas Percy. Kill Mockingbird Movie Comparison! The beginning date for this period is often debated. Some claim it is 1785, immediately following the Age of Sensibility. Others say it began in 1789 with the start of the French Revolution, and still, others believe 1798, the publication year for Wordsworth Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads , is its true beginning. It ends with the passage of the Reform Bill (which signaled the Victorian Era) and with the death of Sir Walter Scott.
American literature has its own Romantic period, but typically when one speaks of Romanticism, one is referring to this great and diverse age of British Literature, perhaps the abolishing death essay, most popular and well-known of all literary ages. This era includes the works of such juggernauts as William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, mentioned above, as well as William Blake, Lord Byron, John Keats, Charles Lamb, Mary Wollstonecraft, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Thomas De Quincey, Jane Austen, and kill book essay, Mary Shelley. Penalty Essay! There is also a minor era, also quite popular (between 1786-1800) called the Gothic era. Writers of note for this period include Matthew Lewis, Anne Radcliffe, and William Beckford. This period is named for the reign of Queen Victoria, who ascended to the throne in 1837 and lasts until her death in 1901. It was a time of great social, religious, intellectual, and economic issues, heralded by passage of the headings and subheadings essay, Reform Bill. The period has often been divided into penalty, “Early” (1832-1848), “Mid” (1848-1870) and “Late” (1870-1901) periods, or into two phases, that of the using headings essay, Pre-Raphaelites (1848-1860) and abolishing penalty essay, that of essay company Aestheticism and Decadence (1880-1901).
This period is in strong contention with the Romantic Period for the most popular, influential, and prolific period in all of English (and world) literature. Penalty Essay! Poets of this time include Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Christina Rossetti, Alfred Lord Tennyson, and Matthew Arnold, among others. Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, and Walter Pater were advancing the essay form. Finally, prose fiction truly found its place and made its mark, under the auspices of Charles Dickens, Charlotte and Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot, Anthony Trollope, Thomas Hardy, William Makepeace Thackeray, and Samuel Butler. This period is named for essay company, King Edward VII and covers the period between Victoria’s death and the outbreak of death penalty World War I. Essay Company! Although a short period (and a short reign of Edward VII), the era includes incredible classic novelists such as Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford, Rudyard Kipling, H.G. Wells, and Henry James (who was born in America but who spent most of his writing career in England), notable poets such as Alfred Noyes and abolishing death penalty essay, William Butler Yeats, as well as dramatists such as James Barrie, George Bernard Shaw and John Galsworthy. This term usually refers to the reign of 95 thesis George V (1910-1936) but sometimes also includes the reigns of the four successive Georges from 1714-1830. Death Penalty Essay! Here, we refer to essay on slaughterhouse five the former description as it applies chronologically and covers, for example, the Georgian Poets, such as Ralph Hodgson, John Masefield, W.H. Davies, and Rupert Brooke.
Georgian Poetry today is typically considered to be the works of minor poets, anthologized by Edward Marsh. The themes and death essay, subject matter tended to be rural or pastoral in nature, treated delicately and traditionally rather than with passion (such as was found in the previous periods) or with experimentation (as would be seen in the upcoming Modern period). The Modern Period traditionally applies to works written after the start of kill mockingbird book essay World War I. Common features include bold experimentation with subject matter, style and form, along with encompasses narrative, verse, and drama. W.B. Yeats’ words, “Things fall apart; the center cannot hold” are often referred to when describing the core tenant or “feeling” of modernist concerns.
Some of the most notable writers of abolishing penalty essay this period, among many, include the novelists James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Aldous Huxley, D.H. Lawrence, Joseph Conrad, Dorothy Richardson, Graham Greene, E.M. Forster, and Doris Lessing; the poets W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot, W.H. Auden, Seamus Heaney, Wilfred Owens, Dylan Thomas, and luther 95 thesis, Robert Graves; and the dramatists Tom Stoppard, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Frank McGuinness, Harold Pinter, and Caryl Churchill. Death Essay! New Criticism also appeared at this time, led by the likes of Virginia Woolf, T.S. Eliot, William Empson and others, which reinvigorated literary criticism in and you student essay general. It is difficult to say whether or not Modernism has ended, though we know that postmodernism has developed after and from it; but for now, the genre remains ongoing. This period begins about the death, time that World War II ended. Many believe it is a direct response to Modernism.
Some say the period ended about 1990, but it is likely too soon to declare this period closed. Poststructuralist literary theory and criticism developed during this time. Some notable writers of the period include Samuel Beckett, Joseph Heller, Anthony Burgess, John Fowles, Penelope M. Aids And You Student Essay! Lively, and Iain Banks. Many Postmodern authors had written during the Modern period as well.
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Essay on Why the Death Penalty Should Be Abolished
Copying Machines Used to Make One or a Few Copies of death penalty, New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to movie book the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875. James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W.
Frost, New York, NY, and John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for 10.5x16. Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at penalty, the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the thesis heights, most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Yates (Ch. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of death essay, outgoing letters in press books at least from the late 1850s to 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in 1901 (p. 226), that the Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for essay, outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and abolishing penalty essay, that the Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in the 1930s (p.
283). The last U.S. President whose official correspondence was copied on a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. Aids And You Student Essay. 2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in abolishing death essay, 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in the late 1950s. (W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. 32) Because of the size and weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at on wuthering heights, the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an office was selecting a press like those in Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at the ends to insure proper spinning. “This is essential to a screw copy press; for unless one pull will serve to raise or to depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to penalty essay the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the martin luther, office had to decide how to organize its letters. Abolishing Death. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into a single letter book in chronological order. In that case, the user needed to martin luther make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved.
Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by abolishing penalty, client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day. Although copies could be made up to twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the number of letters to be written during the luther, next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to abolishing death essay copy 20 one-page letters. On Slaughterhouse. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into abolishing, the copying book in front of the first tissue on 95 thesis which he wanted to make a copy of abolishing penalty essay, a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in thesis, copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and abolishing essay, damp, not wet.” To dampen the mockingbird movie book, tissue paper, the abolishing death penalty, clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over the tissues on which copies were to be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of dampening the tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the aids and you student essay, use of the brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by a single roll of the machine.
Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in the following sequence starting from the front: a sheet of oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against the back of the tissue on which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the death essay, damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.” Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the essay company, copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the abolishing death essay, fire.” Based on experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only aids and you student essay a second or two was needed to make a good impression. When the letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to the moist tissues in abolishing death penalty essay, the book. Because the ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the tissues. Prior to the introduction of inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of copies made on letter copying presses was limited by the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in 1856, and numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. Mockingbird Book Comparison Essay. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in 1868 of thin papers manufactured in death penalty essay, Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.
On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to adjust for the thickness of the aids and you essay, book. Pressure was applied with the lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851. Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851.
Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Abolishing Penalty Essay. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of Ohio, c. 1900. By the late 1870s, an critical essay five, improved method for moistening pages in abolishing essay, copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the essay company, tissues, the clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue. A supply of moist pads was prepared in death penalty, advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in book comparison essay, 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to remove excess water from copying pads.
The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by Globe-Wernicke Co. in abolishing essay, the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. To prepare a supply of in an essay, moist pads using the Ideal bath, the clerk removed the tray from the bath, poured water into the pan, and replaced the essay, tray. Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and aids and you essay, then placed them in the tray. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to keep pads damp enough for ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in front of essay, Letter Copying Press.
Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and thesis, Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads. Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Penalty. Patent No. 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and Instructions, Samuel C. Critical Essay Five. Tatum Co., patented and advertised in 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad.
Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co., Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Death Essay. Courtesy of the Museum of and you student essay, Business History and Technology. Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press,
John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. Abolishing Penalty. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. 1889 ad. Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in 1902. And Subheadings. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto abolishing, loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in 1903 and using headings and subheadings in an essay, 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press,
Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of abolishing death essay, American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on essay company loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters. Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in abolishing death penalty essay, court. Carbon paper became more important after the late 1870s because of the introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Unlike the headings in an essay, earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side.
Typewriters were able to produce up to ten carbon copies along with an original. Carbon paper for use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by the almost universal practice of business concerns, the carbon copy has supplanted the press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence.
According to Yates (p. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for abolishing death penalty, some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.
Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Until the mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of items such as circulars, and that it continued to student essay use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to be distributed to the public rather than for abolishing, internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in aids and you, the US as early as the 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and business stationery. Abolishing Penalty. Sterne (p.
203) reports that The fine detail and unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the kill mockingbird book comparison essay, lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on abolishing a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and essay company, then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is applied to the stone. This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. Death. The stone is then covered with a sheet of martin luther, paper, and the stone and paper are run through a press to make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to abolishing death penalty essay offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to and you essay transfer a document image to a smooth limestone block. Death Penalty Essay. A second example that was exhibited in and you student essay, 1855 and described as suitable for the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by Waterlow and Son of London in abolishing essay, 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in martin luther 95 thesis, the United Kingdom.
The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in death, the US. William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in martin, Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the death penalty, larger foot-operated platen press used by commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in 1870 and exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Essay On Slaughterhouse. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. A. Kelsey Co. Essay. began to market small lever presses in 1872 and continued to sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4).
To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Headings In An. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in a wide range of sizes by abolishing penalty essay, numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co. Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No.
2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines. Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold.
However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the in an, skill or motivation to maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the 1880s. Late in abolishing death essay, 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for several years. Mockingbird Movie Book Essay. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and essay, Hektograph. There were, however, some people who preferred the Edison system. According to an 1885 testimonial, It may be of interest for one who has used the papyrograph and headings and subheadings in an essay, the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to abolishing penalty essay Edison's electric pen as the neatest, readiest, and in every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by critical on slaughterhouse, foot-powered bellows. According to one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen. It is certainly lighter to write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to spoil clothing.
This is on show by Ward Drummond. ( Christian Union , Oct. Abolishing Death Essay. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the headings and subheadings, motive power is supplied by clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to perforate paper, which is made to pass continually between a pen of abolishing death penalty essay, metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is martin luther laid the perforated paper. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888. Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884.
Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for penalty essay, writing by hand on duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is thesis on wuthering heights placed over the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in abolishing death penalty, the line of the writing so made, the stencil paper will be perforated from the kill mockingbird book comparison essay, under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to each other that the abolishing essay, dividing fibers of paper are scarcely perceptible. After the operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the stencil is on critical essay five top of the writing plate. After the stencil is abolishing penalty completed it is placed in the printing frame, by which the stencil is thesis on wuthering firmly held taut and in a position for rapid printing. Abolishing Death Penalty. After inking the roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over on wuthering heights the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over 1,500 copies from a stencil. A. B. Dick claimed to have sold over 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by penalty essay, 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on size and whether they included the items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of book, stencils. Death Penalty Essay. Edison Mimeographs continued to be sold in the early decades of the 20th century.
The model numbers denote different sizes and features. In 1889, the essay on slaughterhouse five, models used for abolishing, handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. On Wuthering. 5; the model for abolishing penalty essay, typewritten stencils only was No. 12; the models for essay company, both types of abolishing death essay, stencils were No. And You Essay. 20 to death No. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Critical On Slaughterhouse. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad.
Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. Penalty Essay. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to 200 copies from a set of mockingbird book comparison essay, two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.
The Rapid Duplicator is illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of very thin paper resting on top of each other. Abolishing Penalty. Behind each of these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on and you the machine, with the abolishing penalty essay, carbon paper ink facing the outside. Kill Movie Book Comparison Essay. He inserted at the left end of the abolishing death penalty, machine blank sheets of martin 95 thesis, paper that were to death essay be printed. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the on wuthering, right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets. Penalty Essay. The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against kill mockingbird movie essay, the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the abolishing death essay, machine.
If three stencils were made, the first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad. Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904.
Plate 30A . Edison Mimeograph No. Essay On Slaughterhouse Five. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad. Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of abolishing death, Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. Mockingbird Movie Book. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30.
Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover. Abolishing Death Essay. The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to kill book comparison essay run a classroom newspaper. Abolishing Death Essay. It was a whopping one column, one page. I ran it weekly for three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. (W. Aids And You. H. Abolishing Death Essay. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of paper coated with gelatin, glue, and essay company, glycerin.
This paper was feed from one roller over a flat surface to another roller ( Plate 34 ). The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to have used a similar technology to produce up to 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section)
Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Death Penalty. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine. When preparing the headings and subheadings, original, hard bond paper and a special kind of ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in death essay, the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is placed face down on the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the hand or a roller.
It is then lifted off, having left its impression on the gelatin. The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the book comparison essay, imprint is made. Abolishing Penalty Essay. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. In 1925, other models were $117 to $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in 1923 and which was marketed for several decades, evolved from the hektograph and mockingbird, Ditto machines described above. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc.
The Ditto process involved the creation of masters and abolishing death, the transfer of ink from on wuthering masters to copies. A Ditto carbon consisted of abolishing penalty, a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of luther, a second sheet that had on its face a coating of paste-like ink. When one typed or drew on the front of the master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of abolishing death, a rotary press with the inked surface outward. When the drum was rotated, the kill movie, inked surface of the master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to wet the ink, and until the abolishing, ink was exhausted impressions were made on papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. And You. R. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad.
The illustration shows three gelatin trays. Plates 33C-D , Bottle for Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of abolishing penalty, 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. Mockingbird. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in circumference, containing a composition to receive a negative of pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over blank papers.
The maker claimed that the penalty, device would make 50 to 75 copies of letters written with a typewriter and 100 to 125 copies of in an essay, letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator, In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by abolishing, a zinc plate or even parchment. According to an 1880 description, the process of using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on thesis on wuthering heights ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is placed ink-side downward upon abolishing penalty essay [a sensitive plate], and five, left for two or three minutes. It is abolishing essay then removed and a negative impression, in perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over with the hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in thesis, permanent jet black will be obtained. This may be repeated for a number of copies, and abolishing death essay, when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and essay, the copies will be as at first. When the requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. Abolishing Essay. 7, 1880, p. 2)
Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by 1887, used parchment secured in student essay, a printing frame. Death. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the using and subheadings in an, paper, causing the lithographic ink to death penalty essay transfer to the parchment. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to the lithographic ink. Next, a sheet of paper was pressed onto the parchment to make a lithographic copy.
Ca. 1887, Autocopyists were $11 to essay company $37, depending on death size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and luther 95 thesis, drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the essay, exception being in reproduction of drawings. An 1887 review of the on wuthering heights, Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to a lithograph-stone, from which any quantity of copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. ( The Office , July 1887, p. 130) In 1932, the Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of lithography which brings, to large and small users alike, the advantages of office lithographic reproduction.
The sale of Multilith machines began in abolishing death, 1933. Essay Company. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the essay, company reported that its Multilith line had developed into a large and important part of the critical essay, company's business. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators. Form letters were more likely to abolishing penalty essay be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to be typewritten was the Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by American Multigraph Co. in aids student, 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is abolishing penalty essay discussed in this Museum's exhibit on essay on slaughterhouse Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to death penalty essay 6,000 letters per essay company hour, depending on the skill of the operator. A Multigraph used by students is pictured in penalty essay, the 1911 catalog of on wuthering heights, Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH.
Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. 1915 Price for abolishing, these two machines was $200. On Slaughterhouse. ( System , Jan. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. 1930s. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad.
Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by penalty, manually arranging type in a holder. In 1924, the essay on slaughterhouse, American Manicopy Typewriter Co. Essay. attempted to raise capital to produce the Manicopy Machine.
The machine was based on US patents No. 1,301,146 and martin, No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and was also called the Macomic Typesetting and abolishing penalty, Type Distributing Machine. A photograph of essay company, one of these machines is immediately to essay the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on thesis on wuthering heights the Manicopy Machine. Death. She places a piece of paper in the typewriter and critical on slaughterhouse five, starts to death penalty write. Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is on slaughterhouse five struck, thus setting the abolishing death penalty essay, type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the on wuthering heights, letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the abolishing penalty, desired number of copies is printed automatically. After the job is thesis on wuthering heights completed, these line bars are returned to penalty their original positions automatically by turning a lever, and by martin 95 thesis, turning another lever the type is instantly and automatically returned to its proper position without the type being touched by hand. The company planned to produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for $1,250 each..
We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the penalty essay, operator to set Multigraph type by working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the body of the form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates. In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the martin luther 95 thesis, Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in the address and typewrites the envelope, all at a single revolution of the drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users.
In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of blank business forms and promotional materials. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to death penalty Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of on wuthering heights, copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Abolishing Essay. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in Washington, DC, stated: Before the using headings and subheadings, Xerox era [which began in abolishing death penalty, 1960], every government agency had one central filing system.
When anybody needed information he went to that central file. But today, with the copying of on wuthering, documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to abolishing death maintain files in his own office. (John H. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in contact with the document that was being copied. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. Martin Luther 95 Thesis. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in abolishing death, the tray of essay company, a blue printing frame, covered this with the essay, translucent original or India ink tracing, and covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the papers together. The blue printing frame was installed so that the prepared tray could be pushed out and you, a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). The clerk exposed the tray for anywhere from penalty several minutes to an hour, depending on the brightness of the day, and used chemicals to fix the print. The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to essay company light and abolishing penalty, white lines where the paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for kill mockingbird essay, use in death penalty, the blue process was available.
Frames for use in exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the development of electric illumination and installation of essay company, electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. On these machines, the frames that held the abolishing, photosensitive paper and the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an early photograph of one of these machines, click on the link to essay company B. L. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and then click on the link to abolishing death first blueprinting machines in New England . See also Plate 39A to the right. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a number of heights, contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to death penalty essay produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in 1906 or 1907, and the Photostat Corp. (an affiliate of Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and essay company, a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in 350-foot rolls.
The prints are made direct on sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening. The usual exposure is penalty ten seconds. Essay Company. After the exposure has been made the paper is cut off and carried underneath the exposure chamber to the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and abolishing penalty, is then drawn into aids, a fixing bath. While one print is being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the copies are removed from the death penalty essay, fixing bath, they are allowed to dry by exposure to essay company the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the original is a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and the blacks, white. Abolishing Death Penalty. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the original is made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by mockingbird movie book comparison, continuing to photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of graphs dating from 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in 1912. (Yates, p. 248, n. 81) A System , Sept.
1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government. In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. (Yates, p. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on death penalty essay maximum print size and essay company, attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for death penalty, an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.
Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. Headings Essay. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c. 1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067.
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY. Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and death essay, 1930s. Using Essay. Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of abolishing essay, photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the essay company, original exposed the abolishing penalty essay, emulsion on critical on slaughterhouse the front of the abolishing penalty, photosensitive paper.
In the 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the movie book, sheet on abolishing death penalty essay which the copy would appear. Infrared light went through the translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. And You. The light that was absorbed by the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the copy.
This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and tended to curl up into penalty essay, tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, pp. Essay Company. 91-97.) For a history of penalty essay, Apeco and the photocopying industry of using in an essay, which it was a part, see the abolishing death penalty essay, Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa.
Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Chester F. Carlson in 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by the Battelle Memorial Institute and the Haloid Co. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in 1950 (Dessauer).
The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. Essay. It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958. The first plain paper office copying machine, the Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). Abolishing Death. The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the kill book comparison essay, company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the Xerox 813 . In 1965, the company introduced the Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier.
First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make. copies on plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from abolishing penalty The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of Practical Banking , Groombridge and kill movie comparison, Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits.
(2) The Edison electric pen in Plate 15 is on display in the Information Age exhibit at abolishing death essay, the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in essay, Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an abolishing death essay, electric pen. The Science Museum in London has a number of early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and using headings and subheadings, a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and B. Rhodes W. W. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and death, History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of early copying technologies. J. S. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of critical, Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. Death Penalty Essay. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and and you student essay, photographs of a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.
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