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Citation for term paper

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Term Paper: Format of Citations and References

Blount County Beekeepers Association. Winter for the beekeeper: It#8217;s time to think about for term paper spring, summer. With winter approaching (in some places it#8217;s already here), the beekeeper has two jobs: Make sure the bees in your hives have plenty of food . Think about about what#8217;s going to happen in essay the beach, your apiary in the spring and summer . Spring is the season the beekeeper should be planning for now. Neither of these jobs involves a lot of work at this point, but they shouldn#8217;t be neglected. The main characteristic of good beekeepers is that they think ahead #8212; one or two seasons ahead.

Now is the paper, time think about ma creative writing your bees , the citation paper, equipment you have and the general environment that will confront the bees when they start flying in scene, the spring. Will you need to order packages of citation for term paper bees or nucs to charles rebuild your apiary in the spring? That, of course, depends on how many of your hives make it through the winter. We don#8217;t know what will happen in for term, that regard at the moment, unless you have already experienced losses. What we do know is that in act 1, Tennessee the winter losses for beekeepers have been about 30 percent during the past few winters. The smart thing then is to citation for term plan for that kind of loss and hope it doesn#8217;t happen. Thesis File Permissions! Now is the time to get in touch with the folks who supply you with bees and see what their availability will be. Most of those people are starting a list now, and your name should be on citation it. We#8217;ll have more to say later about equipment and environment. Right now, you should plan for some losses and think about compare contrast romeo juliet how you will replenish your apiary. Key words: bees, beehives, beekeeping, bee equipment, ordering bees, packages of citation paper bees, beehive nucs, winter losses for beehives.

What is the purpose of essay charles christmas carol a colony of bees? A swarm of citation for term paper bees marches into its new home after being dropped from a tree. Bees do this by accident. They don#8217;t realize how much they#8217;re helping humans and wouldn#8217;t care if they did. Bees make honey because this is a stable food source. The fact that humans like honey is again irrelevant to thesis ups the bees. Citation For Term! Bees are like any other wild animal. Essay Carol! They exist for two reasons: to survive and to citation for term reproduce . Except that, in the case of honeybees, most of them don#8217;t reproduce. They are part of a colony, and the colony tries to survive and to reproduce. I don#8217;t recall ever coming across that term until veteran beekeeper Jim Tew used it in a presentation to the Blount County Beekeepers Association meeting in August. Jim said then that bees will try to survive until they can find a suitable place to live #8212; a good hollow tree or something like that #8212; and #8220;cast a few swarms.#8221; The term popped up again when I was reading Thomas Seeley#8217;s Honeybee Democracy, a fascinating book that is built around Seeley#8217;s decades of contrast vs west side study of swarming behavior.

In upstate New York, where I live, my colonies begin sending forth their drones in late April, and they begin casting their swarms . Citation! . . a week or two later in early May. (p. 35) An enduring mystery about honeybees is what exactly stimulates a colony to begin rearing queens and thesis write ups, thereby initiate the process of swarming. Beekeepers know that certain conditions inside a colony#8217;s hive (congestion of the adult bees, numerous immature bees, and expanding food reserves) and outside the hive (plentiful forage and spring time) are correlated with the start of for term paper queen rearing for swarming. Compare Essay Juliet Vs West! Nevertheless, to this day, no one knows what specific stimuli the worker bees are sensing and integrating when they make the critical decision to citation for term paper start the swarming process. (p. 36) (quoted material) Swarming is what bees do. It#8217;s one of their basic purposes. File Permissions! As good beekeepers, we should let them do it.

Key words: bees, beekeeping, casting swarms, pollination, Thomas Seeley, Honeybee Democracy, swarming, honey. Berenbaum: Effects of feeding sugar rather than honey show unintended consequences. The sugar water/corn syrup/fruitcose vs. honey debate for feeding your bees is a long-standing one. A bee on the buckwheat. Buckwheat is a good late summer-early fall feeding plant for your bees.

Photo by for term paper Doug Hardwick. Recently, I found a Scientific American podcast interview from 2009 in which May Berenbaum , University of Illinois entomologist and bee researcher, discussed that very question with Steve Mirsky of Scientific American. Here are some of the compare contrast essay romeo story, main points Berenbaum made: Honeybee grubs (baby bees) eat a mixture of pollen and honey we call #8220; bee bread .#8221; Sugar doesn#8217;t provide bees with some of the enzymes that help bees process plant chemicals . Brenebaum: #8220;. . . feeding on nectar or honey derived from nectars [is a] very different proposition from feeding on other types of plant tissue because plants load up their vulnerable tissues with chemicals, you know, natural pesticides, so that insects won#8217;t eat them, but they want insects to eat nectar; that#8217;s the citation, whole point [of nectar].#8221; When you substitute a natural food for an artificial one, there may unintended consequences. Permissions! Berenbaum has been awarded one of the 10 National Science Medals by President Barack Obama. The beekeeper in this corner is a big advocate of honey over sugar water in this debate. It#8217;s a lot easier to leave honey in the hive than to take it off and then have to feed them sugar water to get them through the next season. Citation For Term Paper! Sometimes that#8217;s not possible, of course, and you do what you can to keep your bees alive. But beekeeper should think ahead and keep as much honey on the hive as possible. They should also try to compare essay juliet story provide their bees with plants to for term paper feed on during as much of the year (Year-around (almost) blooms for contrast romeo juliet vs west side story the bees) as possible. Below is the transcript to this part of the interview, and you can hear the entire interview at this link . When I was exploring getting into beekeeping, I was standing in the barn of a friend who had kept bees for more than 30 years. The barn was full of #8220; bee equipment ,#8221; and my friend was trying to explain some of it to me.

I remember one thing he said. #8220;If I had to start all over again, I would use only mediums.#8221; Beehives build with just one size of bee boxes. What he meant, of course, was medium-sized boxes , or Illinois supers . What he said #8212; even though I did not completely understand it at citation for term the time #8212; made sense to me, and it translates into antithesis in macbeth act 1 scene 7, a larger principle: the simpler the better. For Term! As most beekeepers know, there are three sizes of bee boxes for in macbeth the hive: deeps, mediums, and smalls. Each size has its uses, and some beekeepers use all three. The argument for using deep boxes is that they are for brood (sometimes they are called #8220;brood boxes#8221;), and beekeepers say these boxes allow the queen to develop a good brood pattern.

The small boxes weigh less, particularly when they are filled with honey, and if you are harvesting honey by citation the box, that#8217;s what you should placing on top of your hives. For my money, the medium is the one-size-that-fits-all box. Thesis! Medium boxes allow the queen sufficient room to develop a brood pattern. They can get heavy if they are filled with honey, but removing a frame or two can lighten them quickly if that#8217;s a consideration. If you use only citation one size of antithesis in macbeth act 1 scene box, you never have to worry about having the wrong size of citation for term paper frames for the boxes you have.

That becomes a huge consideration when you are changing boxes and frames at any time of the qualitative thesis ups, year. The arguments for using only one size of box seem to me to for term paper far outweigh the arguments for descriptive essay about the beach using three sizes. Besides, I#8217;m pretty certain the bees don#8217;t really care. Key words: beekeeping, beehives, bees, bee boxes, supers, Illinois supers, brood boxes, small bee boxes, brood patterns, harvesting honey, simplicity in beekeeping. Honeybees on for term paper goldenrod. To most Americans, goldenrod is a weed. To Europeans, however, goldenrod is act 1 7, a much-prized plant that gardeners go out of their way to cultivate.

To many people in ancient times and citation paper, a growing number in the 21st century, goldenrod is a medicinal herb that has many uses. To honeybees , goldenrod is a major source of nectar and pollen in the fall and a source of much-needed winter stores. And to East Tennesseans this year (the folks in my area), goldenrod is an abundant, showy yellow flower that is filling up our fields, roadside areas and pastures. And our bees are taking to it in droves. The bees will take both pollen and nectar from goldenrod, and writing manchester, they make a distinctive honey from it.

Some beekeepers have harvested this honey, and with its abundance this year, beekeepers in this area might be tempted to do just that. The wiser course for beekeepers might be to let the bees have what they make and to save themselves from some of the efforts of winter feeding. Goldenrod, in addition to its medicinal uses , is also thought to citation paper have some magical powers. Ma Creative Writing Manchester! Some believe it has the power to citation paper bring good luck. The bees who find a good patch of goldenrod probably consider themselves pretty luck.

One of the myths about goldenrod is that it causes allergic reactions, but that#8217;s probably not the descriptive, case. Those reactions are more likely due to goldenrod#8217;s companion ragweed , which blooms at citation paper the same time.

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Term Paper: Format of Citations and References

Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for for term paper this: IELTS is contrast romeo side story, a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Citation Paper. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the thesis write ups exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and citation for term paper write about in essay juliet side their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for citation for term the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics.

They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Thesis File. Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in citation the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there.

Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the carol task or question is citation for term, “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to carol state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing.

The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the for term paper conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the qualitative thesis write ups slightly more academic approach and citation for term paper makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the essay christmas issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is for term, “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. Writing. The short answer is that there is no major difference of approach required. For Term. If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing?

What about a discussion? Is the another format to file permissions write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of citation, 3 major stances: to antithesis 7 a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for citation for term paper a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the act 1 7 main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the for term paper use of descriptive essay about, writting a good essay if you are not answering the citation paper question, but, how are we going to in macbeth scene 7 be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance!

A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in citation for term the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”.

In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in ma creative writing manchester the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in citation paper next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the compare story way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions?

Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the citation paper most frustrate thing is to think out ma creative writing manchester ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. Paper. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to essay christmas have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing.

However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and for term asks you for to ma creative manchester use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether. IELTS is not academic writing – it is citation for term, its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of thesis, my essay relate to citation paper IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing?

You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is that the questions are designed for qualitative thesis write anyone to for term paper answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. The Beach. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to citation write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from act 1, my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on citation for term paper general ie effects on society. Thesis Permissions. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the citation for term examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not.

I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in compare romeo story this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and paper experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. Compare Romeo Juliet Vs West Story. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not.

The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for paper the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for manchester wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to for term be based on knowledge OR experience and essay romeo juliet vs west NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording.

I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for for term candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the antithesis in macbeth 7 rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the for term two options and are not restricted to one or the descriptive essay about other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on citation paper the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is thesis, supposed to citation simple and the key to essay about the beach understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the main points. Read this report by citation for term, the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and qualitative thesis write i now i can say yours is one of the for term bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please?

1. in permissions your “The three different types of paper, IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of thesis ups, essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for for term spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only charles christmas carol, through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole.

In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only for term, be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and descriptive essay about the beach if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to for term describe types of essay. I am guilty of qualitative thesis write, this too. For Term. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to thesis be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions.

The secret as ever is to for term read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compare juliet compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the citation for term paper information are presented in a clear and nice way. In Macbeth. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. Citation For Term. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for qualitative ups the exam. This is often not the for term paper case on dickens christmas the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to for term paper you my essay for essay charles dickens carol the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to for term paper correct every mistake, just to qualitative write read it once and citation paper give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to ma creative be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of for term, mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the essay dickens christmas time, thing which I haven’t).

If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is for term paper, this essay enough good for writing a minimum band score of for term, 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an qualitative ups answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the citation for term following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest?

One of the about most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in citation for term paper many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to ups become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the stress that the citation for term students frequently have to face in antithesis in macbeth act 1 the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for paper many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the compare side story stress.

Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is paper, my opinion that the descriptive about main source of bad behaviour of citation, students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an essay instable family environment is very often the cause of citation paper, arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by ma creative writing, the teachers and citation paper accurately be revised and antithesis scene adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Paper. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in descriptive instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks.

Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Paper. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays.

This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the thesis ups clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the citation for term paper idea now on thesis file how to citation write and speak appropriately. Writing Manchester. TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. For Term Paper. Please, i have started to contrast essay romeo vs west story practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to for term paper be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). Qualitative Ups. please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to for term paper revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible.

I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. Romeo Story. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of vocab you need. Citation Paper. Very frequently, the task part of the descriptive question – the bit that tells you what you need to for term paper do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to descriptive you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure.

I hope it’s worked out for you now. Citation For Term. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to file permissions those IELTS writing examinees.

This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the citation for term paper exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and essay tips. Paper. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the descriptive essay answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to for term paper the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them.

I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to thesis write split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to paper do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to in macbeth scene have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to for term paper make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates.

sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the descriptive essay about the beach statement of question (from task 2 as well) and paper sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and thesis file permissions comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. For Term. I see your point about “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about thesis ups “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and citation scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in file their exams.

pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for paper headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on manchester the reading page. Citation. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for contrast essay juliet vs west side and against. I’ll see what I can do for you.

It’s the sort of citation for term paper, topic you need to essay charles carol be able to write and speak about. I’ll try and citation for term post something next week. Thanks but I need it for file Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. Citation. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic.

This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of file, 7.0 in every exam including the citation paper OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of about the beach, them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to paper start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the charles dickens best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the exam) which are the best according to you.

I desperately need 7.0 in citation for term paper every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out in macbeth act 1 scene whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to citation for term interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to compare essay romeo story receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance.

No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the IELTS at citation paper, least 7 times now, and carol I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for paper those who want to take IELTS #128521;

I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and permissions give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the for term IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph.

However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and act 1 scene 7 then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in paper the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to writing you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from for term, this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Dickens. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor.

i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Citation For Term. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to essay christmas spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the citation 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this?

if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of descriptive the beach, question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. Citation For Term. I do need to thesis permissions go back to that post. Citation. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in essay front of citation for term paper, you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to do list.

Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only in macbeth 7, one position.does the topic content make difference on citation choosing the format of file permissions, such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out for term formulae/formulas for qualitative write each type of question. I am never really convinced by citation, that approach, I much prefer the charles dickens carol approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is citation paper, my general advice.

The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to in macbeth act 1 scene outline your your position in relation to for term the question and give your answer. Even if the question is “do you agree?”, it is contrast essay side story, open to citation for term paper you to say I agree but only up to a point. Ma Creative. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. For Term Paper. Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions.

Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is contrast story, simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the for term paper question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of thesis file permissions, your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on for term IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of antithesis, my general knowledge of the topics. Citation. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. Qualitative Thesis Write. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to citation for term get excellent score? any suggestion? please.

Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and descriptive about every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on.

everything. For Term Paper. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for contrast romeo juliet side story a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Citation Paper. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use.

Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. In Macbeth Act 1 Scene. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the for term paper negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it?

Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of ma creative, relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the citation paper “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to descriptive essay about the beach make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is paper, more appropriate. Qualitative Thesis Ups. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas.

I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in citation for term writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in thesis agree disagree we must have to citation for term dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. Compare Contrast Romeo Juliet Vs West Side. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for for term paper general ielts. I need to act 1 7 prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. For Term Paper. So please fix the problem.

Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website?

Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for dickens christmas me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to citation get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for qualitative thesis exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot.

Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the citation for term paper waste from homes is recycled. Essay Charles Christmas Carol. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for citation for term governments to thesis permissions make it a legal requirement. Mostly the for term recycled product is come from the scene 7 home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is paper, not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the write ups society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement.

As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the for term paper street even from the gutters as well. Antithesis Act 1. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in citation paper people for descriptive about the importance of recycling garbage. Citation For Term Paper. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in contrast juliet participating with recycling department.

For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the citation paper fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the essay carol non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to paper follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the essay charles carol organizations wanted to citation recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to thesis file permissions conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for citation for term paper waste material.

These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of file, waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]

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Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, and citation DADA essay. Symbolism has widely been used as a means of representation of gender roles, which have become critical in the modern day society. This has especially been done with regard to enhancing expression of feminine and thesis file masculine nude elements found in the common layman societal view. This has ultimately resulted in the enhancement and for term paper establishment of female and manchester male nude tendencies that are currently used in the definition of human perceptions concerning the same (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 23). The concept essentially takes into account the phenomenal differences that exist among their midst. An expression of symbolism with regard to nudity can be seen in the bath water vase depicting Pelops and Hippodameia on a Chariot in which there is a picture of a nude youth accompanied by a woman who is draped in cloth (Museum of citation for term paper Fine Arts, “Handbook of thesis write ups Fine Art”). This serves to bring out symbolic expression of citation paper erotic association in the enhancement of male-female relationships. Fauvism is an art movement, which was started back in 1905, and it emphasized on the expression of art forms through the discreet of thesis rare unnatural colors combined into simple forms. The utilization of numerous colors in this manner gives the work of art a different expression especially when the for term paper, combinations used are non-standard formulas. This is evident in Henri Matisse’s painting in his work “Blue nude” in which a woman lies down on the ground while emphasis is ma creative manchester put on her body features (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 28).

The color combination shows a mixture of blue, green, white and citation orange among others. These colors have been placed in the background in a bid to make the contrast essay vs west side story, woman’s body look more prominent. Similarly, in Kees van Dongen’s painting “the woman with large hat”, the color combination used projects on the woman’s breast features as opposed to the hat like the for term paper, title suggests (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 35). This further serves to emphasize more on the woman’s beauty. Cubism essentially refers to an artistic movement which begun in contrast essay romeo vs west side the French and has characteristics of geometry explained in terms of planes. It is essentially an avant-garde art movement that whose pioneers are Gorge Braque and Pablo Picasso.

In addition, other pioneers who contributed to this discovery were Delaunay and for term Le Fauconnier. These pioneers essentially led to the start of the revolution period concerning the western painting and sculptural representations, and specifically European style of art. It involves portraying two-dimensional art forms in an artistic format that gives them three-dimensional form (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 92). Antithesis Act 1. This type of art received accolade from citation for term paper many artists in thesis file the global scene. Picasso, for instance, combines visual and tactile perceptions into a single mode, he understands the fact that the picture is not necessarily a transposition of the portrayed diagram but it essentially encompasses elements of sense, idea that contribute to enhancement of its total image (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 185). There are many instrumental examples that serve to support this fundamental view. A good example would be Edgar Degas’ painting ‘the woman in birth’ which portrays a nude woman bathing in an old setting as she bends over showing her back (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 33).

The paint serves to bring out a different aspect of nudity in balancing gender roles in the fact that there is no explicit depiction of women in a disrespectful manner. The fact that bathing is a private affair serves to portray visible elements as well as tactile elements. The viewer of the picture gets the feeling of what is actually going on in the background from a sensual approach. This positive depiction serves to cement the impending relationships between traditional feminine and masculine derived roles. Another example of is Pablo Picasso’s ‘Blue nude’, which shows a woman sitting her with legs crossing as she leans on her elbow by placing one of her elbows on citation paper, her knees (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and dickens christmas Modernity”, 37). This picture portrays a woman under some form of distress and she is barely trying to let out her emotions in paper order to lay matters to rest. This shows the manner in which women are essentially isolated from their personal selves by their significant others; in this case, it is the men. It therefore portrays an imbalance in the balance of societal roles delegated to women against those of their fellow men. Futurism is an artistic phenomenon that started among the Italian artists who tried to express the new views into the field of art through the projection of artistic views to represent the critically valuable future. The founder of this movement was Filippo Tommaso who fundamentally expounded deliberate art forms that strive to inculcate a futuristic component into a piece of thesis write ups art in his self-proclaimed manifesto.

In his manifesto, he sought to citation oppose past sentiments associated with art forms and hence fronted for the transgression to essay charles dickens modernity (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 108). This was essentially an citation, enthusiastic venture that sought to essay incorporate modern day technology into the scene of art and encapsulate them into paper, a futuristic component. There are various nude art forms, which have been produced in contemporary art. The fundamental belief in futurism is the fact that objects begin to be viewed from a different viewpoint, which is devoid of the writing manchester, association with prevailing beliefs, for instance, religious beliefs regarding the morality of nude artistry forms. In Servini Gino’s work of art “La Danse du Pan Pan au Monico”, there are images have been idolized in abstract forms such that to the common believer this is citation for term paper meant to act 1 spark a different view of the aspect of nudity (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 39). In as much as nudity is ordinarily seen as an explicit content material, in certain cases there is a meaningful additional element that can be derived from its association. In this work of art, it appears as some form of confusion is going on in the crowd in which some imagery elements of women can be deduced. The artist has entirely struggled to make the components less explicit by citation for term, super imposing the nude images onto one another using different colors. Dada is a form of art that has been greatly subject to a lot of antithesis act 1 controversial sentiments for a long time now. This form of art that silently flourished in the many western block and European block countries.

The initial spirit towards its formulation was to citation for term paper emulate the spirit of resistance practiced towards supporters of the contemporary art world. The ideology of Dadaism was initially fronted by critics to thesis permissions the supporters of the contemporary art presentations that pursue the recognition of individual input into a specific art genre. The contenders of the ‘theory of the Avant-Garde’ essentially inform the spirit of citation for term paper Dadaism (Wood and Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”, 112). Antithesis Act 1. This puts more emphasis on a movement’s influence on a single work of art. This therefore provides a mode of reaction to citation the works created by write ups, upcoming and for term influential artists found in the art environment.

The main aim is to create a method of categorizing produced forms of art by fundamentally receiving them after critical review into the movement. The most critical and renowned supporter of the Avant-Garde system, its pursuits and beliefs was Marcel Duchamp even thought he was finally ousted from their helm. Ma Creative Manchester. In his work ‘ Etant donnes’, which was incidentally his among his last works of art (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 105). In this art form, there is a naked body of a woman lying in for term the mouth of a cave while holding a lamp. The art form displays the qualitative thesis ups, woman’s sexual organs among other minute details (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 107).

This work of art essentially led to major criticism from for term Duchamp’s contenders. The work essentially promotes the idea of women as sexual objects. In the descriptive about the beach, background there appears to citation be a wilderness setting and a small stream passing sideways to which the writing, human is lying (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 93). This is citation for term because in the picture, the woman is virtually holding a lighting lamp and it appears as if there is anticipation of sexual activity. It therefore relegates the woman’s role to that of conducting household duties, and essay pleasing the men in fulfilling their sexual appetites. These modernists are essentially progressive in the elemental expression of paper gender roles, which define the contrast juliet, critical roles assigned to feminine and masculine personalities. Their achievement can be attributed to the fundamental achievement in constructing desired personalities, which are embedded in the categorical affiliations of different genders in the common society. The virtue of establishing a typical description of existing gender roles in citation for term paper the current existing societal frameworks concerning two-dimensional and three-dimensional art forms is paramount. The emphasis on nudity through erotic art for instance serves to enhance the appreciation of sensational tendencies associated which sexual affiliations (Wood and writing manchester Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”,98). 2. For Term Paper. Graphic Design and Technology. Color lithography has undergone significant evolution from the previous primitive forms to the modern digital lithographic forms common in many establishments.

This transformation from the previous rudimentary forms has seen the enhancement of new art forms in the modern day society (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 109). The art started in the primal days when painting of animal art forms was the order of the day. For instance, some of the earliest art designs found in the Greek were essentially molded by compare vs west side story, hand. This was the paper, classical art are in which bronze formed an important part of most art forms. However, there were attempts to make some form of decorations on the rudimentary art forms. Painted art form took fore front for decorating majority of the objects (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Arts: Western Art,” 44 ) . The classical period gave progressively led to the transfer of art skills to into the western culture to the point it became a major area of about the beach interest giving birth and for term emancipation of western art. In Rogier van der Weyden’s painting done in 1480 in which he paints a virgin figure and captures the qualitative thesis write, moment at that time by for term, covering aspects of the landscape ultimately giving a feeling of care, color and brilliance (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Arts: Western Art,” 74). This signifies the about, progression from rudimentary forms of for term art to descriptive the beach modern day art expression of objects capturing the impending moments.

The practice was then spread through the citation for term, use of books, religion as seen in the Quran, calligraphy, cartographical maps, playing cards for gambling, in German suits, the Byzantine art of the Roman Writing, Miniature art, Asian art forms, African art, communication and ultimately the modern day communication technology forms of graphic art and design. Dadaism as a movement has been the most critical in the beach changing the outset of the citation, twenty-century art in that its supporters have played such a significant role. For instance, a prominent figure in this scene is Marcel Duchamp. In Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase”, he strives to bring out different aspects of human movement as they descend the stairs (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 58). The title itself if very controversial in ma creative that it portrays a different element of the picture, which an on looker can barely achieve without significant interpretation.

This art received significant criticism from the art analysts due to the message of irony it carries with it. In his cubist paint version, “The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors” the same controversy is derived. This becomes the citation paper, driving force in the formation of fundamentally different art views from the contemporary world. The famous ‘Monalisa’ portrait received was ardently used to change the ma creative, outset of art during criticism era of the 1890s (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 60). The “Le lire” by citation for term, Arthur Sapeck depicts the image of Monalisa smoking a pipe with smoking blowing upwards.

This is qualitative write fundamentally against the promotion of the contemporary art forms of the 1890s period (Wood and paper Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 212). Another instance is seen in Marcel Duchamp’s ‘the fountain.’ This is essentially a print picture hence serves to promote print art forms as opposed to ma creative writing manchester contemporary organic art. This helped the artists to develop new art forms through the progressive acquiring of new art skills from contemporary art versions. Citation For Term. This essentially came through the aspect of cross-cultural affiliations in those days when exploration was a major activity among the affluent society (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and essay dickens carol Modernity”, 88). Hence, the citation for term paper, expression of different cultural backgrounds served to develop and nurture these artistic skills into critical components of the existing society. Compare Contrast Essay Juliet Vs West Side. In developing democratic forms of art, the artists have gone through encountered barrier points that need to be subjectively addressed leading to a change of prospects and artistic pursuits through enhanced of the technological platform. As visible in the 1890s, a new wave of influence began to set into the literal art scene (Tom and citation for term paper Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 63).

This was the periods when scientific revolution began to set in through the enhancement of qualitative ups science led inventions, which were typical for the industrial period. Modern artists have formed numerous affiliations opposing the fundamental continuation of primitive art forms or old art forms, which deserve to be eliminated from the official art scene. These is very evident from the concept of the various existing movements found in the contemporary world, for instance, the associations with Dadaism who are well renowned in their continued efforts to denounce the existence of old forms of art. The main aim is to oppose conventional art forms that have already undergone the fundamental test of time by submitting them to various review mechanisms meant to establish their relevancy with regard to new provisions (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 65). This leads to the creation of new definitions of art, which may not necessarily fit, into the commonly known art forms. Citation. For instance, one may consider the description of silence as a qualifying form of art even though critics may find this notion somewhat misplaced. Descriptive Essay. Futurism is also strongly associated with anti-art sentiments proclaimed by citation for term paper, nonconforming modernist views.

Among the descriptive essay, most radical attacks on traditional art were instances provided by Dadaism followers. The most phenomenal was by for term paper, Marcel Duchamp in his modification of the prestigious ‘Monalisa’ portrait (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 93). Here he adds a moustache and beard on charles carol, Monalisa’s chin. This ultimately gives the portrait a masculine touch, which fundamentally changes the context of the portrait. The message intended is that it now time for newer forms of art to citation for term paper take the scene. Descriptive Essay About. Another controversial of Marcel Duchamp’s works is the depiction of the urinal as ‘the fountain.’ This serves to negate the natural instinct with regard to real definition of the fountain (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99). The firm stand taken by the critics in the division of art forms into several categories further serves to strengthen these facts. For instance, the reference of old art forms as classical art as opposed to modern art forms. Another anti-art protest is the depiction of the ‘Monalisa’ portrait with a smoking pipe by Arthur Sapeck (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 98). This was shown in an exhibition, which was christened ‘the incoherents.’ This serves to portray the level of defiance shown by these artists towards the continuation of the citation, reputation of medieval art forms.

There attacks were mostly motivated by the opposition of different ideals to which most of the essay dickens christmas carol, artists belonged. For instance, two philosophers, Ernest Mach and Feud Sigmund argued on the application of the mind’s approach towards the interpretation of certain events. This ultimately determines the subject of a specific topical matter or concern. This led to the development of positivism view, which determined the citation for term, relationship between external variables, reality component, and the individual (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in antithesis scene 7 the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99). The emphasis placed on the mind ability and freedom to discern the body’s surrounding and other happenings led to these developments. The anti-art led to the emancipation of new art forms that eventually led to the marketing idea of new forms of art. The platform of for term paper art was changed from that of a traditional approach of descriptive mere appreciation to the incorporation of business approaches. The theory of modernism slowly transformed and led to the adoption of the pop culture. This came after the First World War. The new pop culture influence on art led to the emancipation of digitized forms of art compared to traditional organic forms (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 73). Art became like a new for society to address its social problems, which subsequently led to the commercialization of art forms.

This transition caused led to the enhancement of self-awareness virtues among the human race. With time, a new culture was being formed and private art practice became the for term, norm through the teaching of art in various academic institutions. Mass production became the new element with the production of compare essay romeo numerous forms of art through digitization technologies (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 87). Citation Paper. This led to the increased utilization of marketing strategies through utilization of mass media. As time went, art became revolutionized and it adopted other enhanced forms according to the market.

These included visual art forms and essay charles christmas performing arts.

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1 timothy - essay Pier Francesco Sacchi (c. 1485-1528), Saint Paul Writing (1520s), oil on poplar, 106 x 81.9 cm. Paper? The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London. Larger image. 1 and 2 Timothy along with Titus are known as the Pastoral Epistles, because they consist largely of pastoral advice on how to deal with problems in churches both in Ephesus and in Crete. Dickens Christmas? These three epistles have a lot in citation for term paper common with each other. Kmmel summarized it this way: They presuppose the same false teachers, the same organization, and entirely similar conditions in the community. They move within the same relative theological concepts and essay romeo juliet, have the same peculiarities of language and style. 1. The texts of both 1 and 2 Timothy clearly state that they are written by the Apostle Paul: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God. (2 Tim 1:1a). The early church clearly accepted them as genuinely Pauline.

They were probably known to the author of 1 Clement (ca. 96 AD). 2 Several passages in paper the letters of thesis write ups, Ignatius (ca. 110 AD) seem to paper, show dependence on them. 3 Polycarp of Smyrna (ca. 117 AD) cited them, 4 as did Justin Martyr (ca. 140 AD).

They were rejected by the heretical Marcion Canon (ca. 150 AD) according to Tertullian, because of their emphasis on church discipline. Compare Contrast Essay Vs West Story? 5 They are clearly attributed to Paul by Irenaeus (ca. 180 AD). 6. It was not until Schleiermacher in the nineteenth century that their authenticity was questioned. Today, a majority of New Testament scholars consider them to be written by a disciple of Paul, not Paul himself.

I disagree. For Term Paper? I believe that Paul wrote the Pastoral Epistles. Descriptive? I will outline the arguments for and against Pauline authorship below. There is no dispute, however, that the citation for term paper Pastoral Epistles were accepted by the early church as written by Paul himself. First and Second Timothy are so named because they are addressed to Timothy, Paul's travelling companion and assistant on his missionary journeys. In 1 Timothy, Paul, who has gone on to Macedonia, asks Timothy to remain in writing manchester Ephesus in order to deal with the false teachers that have arisen there (1 Timothy 1:3-4). It is important, however, to recognize that 1 Timothy, at least, is not intended for citation paper Timothy's eyes only.

Again and again Paul underscores both his own authority and that of Timothy, with the assumption that this letter would be read by the church itself. The Beach? Both Timothy and for term paper, the church as a whole are the intended readers of 1 Timothy. Timothy (whose name means honoring God or venerating God) was born to a mixed marriage of a Jewish mother and a Greek, unbelieving father. His family lived in the city of Lystra. Location of Lystra. On Paul's first missionary journey to this city, Timothy, his mother Eunice, and his maternal grandmother Lois become believers (Acts 14:8-20; 2 Timothy 1:5). When Paul visits Lystra on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1-5), he recognizes the spiritual growth that has taken place in this young man in the intervening years. Paul sees in Timothy the makings of an associate who can help him in descriptive about the beach his missionary endeavors. It may sound strange to citation for term, us, but one of the qualifications Timothy had to meet in order to work with Paul was to be circumcised. Since Timothy was Jewish through his mother, he could hardly work with Paul in the synagogues of the Mediterranean as an uncircumcised Jew (Acts 16:3). Timothy is charles dickens carol probably commissioned by Paul and the elders in his home church of Lystra.

There is a word of prophecy over him, the laying on of hands, and the impartation of a spiritual gift (1 Timothy 1:18; 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6), perhaps that of evangelist (2 Timothy 4:5). And so the for term partnership begins. Timothy travels with Paul's party as an assistant, apprentice, and protg -- and he gradually proves himself to be a trusted minister in his own right. Compare Contrast Essay Juliet? He travels with Paul and Silas to Philippi (Acts 16:12) and Berea (Acts 17:14), and joins Paul at Athens. Then he is paper sent to encourage the church in Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 3:2) and later is with Paul and romeo juliet vs west, Silas in citation for term paper Corinth (1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1). Ma Creative Writing? On Paul's third missionary journey, Timothy plays an important role, too.

He is sent ahead to Philippi (Acts 19:22), then travels to meet Paul (1 Corinthians 16:10), is paper with Paul in Corinth (Romans 16:21), and travels with him to Philippi (Acts 20:3-6) before Paul returns to Jerusalem and essay, imprisonment. When Paul is sent in chains to for term paper, Rome for contrast essay juliet vs west side trial, Timothy is there with him (Philippians 1:1; 2:19; Colossians 1:1; Philemon 1). He is a great comfort. Paul writes during this time: I have no one else like him, who takes a genuine interest in your welfare. For everyone looks out for his own interests, not those of Jesus Christ. But you know that Timothy has proved himself, because as a son with his father he has served with me in the work of the gospel. (Philippians 2:20-22)

It appears that Paul was released from his first imprisonment in Rome (see more on this below). At this time the pair splits up. Paul returns to Philippi while Timothy is dispatched to citation for term paper, Ephesus to deal with false teachers who have established some following there. Essay The Beach? Timothy has his work cut out for him. Paul exhorts him to let no one despise his youth as he appoints elders and deacons, corrects elders bringing false teaching, and regulates care for the church widows. Timothy is citation still in Ephesus when Paul is imprisoned in compare contrast essay romeo vs west side story Rome (apparently for a second time) and writes his final letter, 2 Timothy.

Later, Timothy spends some time in prison himself (Hebrews 13:23). After that his history gets fuzzy. Church tradition records that he serves as Bishop of Ephesus until 80 AD, when he is beaten to death by pagans. Location of Ephesus. The letters of 1 and 2 Timothy are written to citation paper, Timothy while he served as Paul's appointed leader of the church of Ephesus, probably in the mid-60s AD. We'll look at Paul's circumstances as he wrote the letters below, but first let's consider the charles dickens christmas carol historical situation of the church in Ephesus. Ephesus was a wealthy city located on west coast of citation for term paper, Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), on antithesis scene 7, the banks of the Cayster River as it enters the Mediterranean, forming an ample harbor. It was an important city, serving as the capital of proconsular Asia, a Roman province.

It probably had a population of about half a million. Statue of the goddess Artemis (Diana), first century AD, Ephesus Archeaological Museum, Seluk, Turkey. Larger image. The Ephesians worshipped the goddess Artemis (Diana), whose temple in Ephesus at the time was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It was also home to Hellenistic mystery religions, as well as the residence of many Jews. Each of these exerted its influence on the religious climate in the city. Paper? Acts 19 tells the story of Paul's two-year ministry founding the file permissions church in Ephesus, probably about 53-54 AD.

The city was so important to Paul and early Christianity that it was the recipient of four letters that exist today: Paul's Letter to Ephesians Paul's Letter to for term paper, 1 Timothy . (2 Timothy was addressed primarily to Timothy himself while he served as the leader of the ma creative writing church in citation for term paper Ephesus.) 1 John was probably written by the Apostle John as a circular letter to antithesis act 1, the churches in the area, with Ephesus as the most important. John apparently lived there for a number of years, and it is his traditional burial place. Citation Paper? Letters to contrast essay juliet side story, the Seven Churches of Revelation (Revelation 2-3) has Ephesus as the citation paper first church addressed, encouraged, and admonished (Revelation 2:1-7). Manchester? This important church was subject to the winds of heresy from citation for term paper, both Judaism on the one hand and the Hellenistic mystery religions on the other. Correction of the descriptive essay about false teachers was necessary for the church to survive intact. Paul's Release and Second Roman Imprisonment. The historical setting of 1 and citation for term, 2 Timothy, however, raises some difficult issues. The book of Acts, which chronicles Paul's ministry, ends with him under house arrest in Rome, awaiting trial: For two whole years Paul stayed there in manchester his own rented house and welcomed all who came to see him. Boldly and without hindrance he preached the citation paper kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ. Thesis Permissions? (Acts 28:30-31) Some scholars have assumed that this was Paul's final imprisonment. But there are several indications to the contrary in both the Pastoral Epistles as well as early church tradition.

Here is a possible chronology of this period. There are some indications in early Christian writings that the ministry to for term, Spain that Paul hoped for in Romans 15:24 was actually completed after release from Paul's first Roman imprisonment. 8 The Pastoral Epistles describe a ministry in that period in both Crete (Titus 1:5) and Macedonia (1 Timothy 1:3), as well as in Achaia (Greece) for a year or two, spending the winter of thesis file, 65-66 at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12). Paul also visited Miletus (2 Timothy 4:20) and citation, Troas (2 Timothy 4:13, 20). He was apparently arrested and imprisoned in Rome, from which he wrote 2 Timothy, and was finally executed about descriptive essay about the beach, 67/68 AD. 9. Of course, this reconstruction is speculative; we can't know for for term paper sure. Unlike some of the other churches Paul had founded, the false teachers he opposed in the letters to Timothy were primarily insiders, not teachers from outside the church. Most dangerously, these false teachers were the elders or overseers themselves. The church in Ephesus and in other cities was probably composed of house-churches, each presided over by an elder (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:19; Titus 1:11).

These elders were, in turn, influencing other elders and house-churches. Paul had foreseen this years before as he had met with them on the beach at qualitative Miletus for citation the last time. He had told them: I know that after I leave, savage wolves will come in manchester among you and will not spare the for term flock. Charles? Even from your own number men will arise and distort the citation for term truth in order to draw away disciples after them. (Acts 20:29-30) Now it had come to pass, and Timothy, as Paul's most trusted co-worker, had been appointed to deal with it. From 1 Timothy we deduce several things about the false teachers: Those spreading error were teachers (1:3, 7; 6:3) and therefore probably elders , since teaching was a primary task of the elders (3:2; 5:17). Essay About? One of Paul's emphases in this letter concerns the character, qualifications, and discipline of citation for term paper, church leaders, namely overseers/pastors/elders and deacons (3:1-13; 5:17-25). Two ringleaders have been named and excommunicated (1:19-20).

The false teachers' most fruitful field is apparently among women in the congregation (2 Timothy 3:6-9; 1 Timothy 2:9-15; 5:3-16, especially 11-15). The false teachers seem to have a Jewish cast (1:6-10; 4:3). Essay Charles Dickens? What Was the Nature of paper, Their Teaching? Paul doesn't give us a list of the false teaching that Timothy was charged to combat in Ephesus, so we must develop our list in two ways: Specific mentions of false teachings. Reading between the qualitative write ups lines to discern from the corrective teachings that Paul gives Timothy. In compiling this list I am drawing upon for term direct statements and hints in all three of the Pastoral Epistles. Thesis File Permissions? Of course, 1 and 2 Timothy were written to the situation in Ephesus and Titus to the situation in Crete. But the problems seem similar.

Our first inclination is to look for for term paper blatant heresies, that is, teachings that cut to the heart of the nature of God and of Christ -- denying Christ's divinity, for example. Writing Manchester? But that isn't what we see here. The false teachings are more subtle than that. Citation Paper? Towner characterizes the Ephesian Heresy as follows: A form of aberrant Judaism with Hellenistic / Gnostic tendencies that overemphasized the law and underemphasized Christ and faith, taught dualism (asceticism, denial of a physical resurrection), was unduly interested in the minutiae of the Old Testament, produced sinful lifestyles and irrelevant quibbling about words, and was destroying the reputation of the church in Ephesus. 10.

1. Speculative Teaching of Jewish Myths and Genealogies. Perhaps the in macbeth act 1 7 most obvious false teaching has to citation for term, do with a strong emphasis on Jewish myths and genealogies. . Nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies. (1 Timothy 1:4) Have nothing to do with godless myths and compare contrast essay romeo juliet vs west side story, old wives' tales. (1 Timothy 4:7) They will turn their ears away from the truth and citation, turn aside to myths. (2 Timothy 4:4) Avoid foolish controversies and genealogies. (Titus 3:9) We may find this hard to understand, but consider all the genealogies in the Old Testament and even the New. Jews who could prove their genealogical descent from the patriarchs considered themselves superior. This had been over-emphasized in descriptive essay about Ephesus and Crete among the Jewish Christians. Jewish myths may have included various Jewish allegories of creation, perhaps speculative rabbinic exegesis. Jewish pseudepigraphical writings from the first and second centuries AD are full of such stories. Second, there seems to be a kind of false teaching related to a use of the Old Testament, insisting on adherence to paper, the Mosaic ritual law, kosher food, circumcision, etc. They want to be teachers of the law, but they do not know what they are talking about or what they so confidently affirm. (1 Timothy 1:7) For there are many rebellious people, mere talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision group. Ma Creative? (Titus 1:10) . Arguments and quarrels about the for term law. (Titus 3:9) They . order them to compare contrast romeo juliet vs west story, abstain from certain foods, which God created to citation for term paper, be received with thanksgiving. Dickens? (1 Timothy 4:3) . The commands of those who reject the truth. (Titus 1:14) We see Paul combating a similar kind of legalism in Colossae (Colossians 2:16, 21-23). 3. Downplaying the Role of Marriage.

Third, these teachers downplayed the paper role of marriage, a kind of asceticism. They forbid people to descriptive essay about the beach, marry. (1 Timothy 4:3) It may be similar to the situation Paul addressed in citation for term 1 Corinthians 7:1-7. It is probably no coincidence that Paul stresses the importance of faithfulness to one's marriage and careful management of one's household for overseers/elders and deacons (1 Timothy 3:1, 4, 12; Titus 1:6). Perhaps this false teaching extended to compare contrast essay romeo juliet vs west side story, childbirth as well, occasioning Paul's example concerning childbirth in 1 Timothy 2:15. 11. Paul taught that the ritual laws were obsolete in the messianic age, while the ethical laws remained. The false teachers seemed to teach the opposite -- that the ritual laws were binding, but conduct wasn't as important. They claim to citation, know God, but by their actions they deny him. They are detestable, disobedient and unfit for doing anything good. (Titus 1:16) There's the suggestion of taking advantage of some of the church women, perhaps sexually (2 Timothy 3:6). Paul's guidelines for leaders presuppose ethical and behavior problems, for Paul writes: Now the overseer must be above reproach, the husband of but one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. (1 Timothy 3:2-3) Twice more Paul warns Timothy about the writing manchester dangers of the love of money (1 Timothy 6:5-10, 17-19), so we can assume that this was one of the citation for term paper heresies being promulgated in Ephesus.

Next, Paul's opponents in Ephesus taught that the resurrection had already come -- that is, that we no longer look forward to Christ's coming, judgment, and resurrection of the dead. Qualitative Thesis Write? They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they destroy the faith of some. Citation? (2 Timothy 2:18) This may have similarities with teachings in Corinth that denied the resurrection of the dead at all (1 Corinthians 15:12). Two church members had already been excommunicated for such teaching that was causing major problems with some of the members' faith (1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 2:17). There are some indications that Paul is dealing with an early form of Gnosticism here that deprecates physical matter, for essay example -- not full-blown Gnosticism at citation paper it would appear a century later, but beginning strands of the opposing ideas of what is falsely called knowledge (1 Timothy 6:20). Finally, there is an indication that the file false teachers were so immersed in speculative controversies that they neglected the very core of the Christian faith -- a situation not unfamiliar today! Why else would Paul talk about his own salvation and then make the point: Here is a trustworthy saying that deserves full acceptance: Christ Jesus came into the world to paper, save sinners -- of whom I am the worst. Manchester? (1 Timothy 1:15) Finally, he exhorts Timothy: Endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist, discharge all the duties of your ministry. Citation For Term Paper? (2 Timothy 4:5) The gospel! The gospel! It is always on Paul's mind. It is his theme, his message -- and is so easy for us to antithesis in macbeth, dismiss as old hat. It is hard to characterize the heresy at Ephesus in any clear, simple way.

Lightfoot correctly describes it as: Floating speculation, vague theories, coalescing gradually to a great consistency and tendency more or less in one direction. 12. The heresy was destructive. The false teachers had: Upset entire house churches (Titus 1:11) Deceived many women (2 Timothy 3:6) Upset the faith of many (1 Timothy 1:19; 2 Timothy 2:18) Caused people to stray after Satan (1 Timothy 4:1; 5:15) The false teaching must be fought. There is a sense of urgency, especially in 1 Timothy. So the primary purpose of paper, 1 Timothy is to urge Paul's appointed representative to stop the false teaching. The secondary purpose is to provide written authorization before the church to allow Timothy to carry out this task. The purpose of 2 Timothy is much more personal -- primarily to call Timothy to his side and to exhort him to faithfulness in descriptive about the beach his ministry.

Paul has seen many defections and desertions during his second imprisonment. He appeals to Timothy's loyalty and longs for citation for term paper him to come to ma creative writing, him in Rome. Arguments against Pauline Authorship. Before we conclude, we need to look briefly at various arguments that have been raised against Paul's authorship of the Pastoral Epistles. In short, here they are: A significant part of the paper characteristic words of the Pastoral Epistles is new vocabulary, and the new terms seem to antithesis act 1 scene, represent more the language of Hellenism or Hellenistic Judaism. For example, instead of faith, the author tends to use godliness, instead of the gospel we see sound teaching. Sound-minded and related words predominate as virtues. Much of Paul's rich theological vocabulary is lacking , such as those words used to develop themes such as righteousness, justification, etc. Stylistic features of Greek grammar that are common to the Pastoral Epistles are different than in Paul's earlier letters. These observations are true -- though they are often overstated by opponents of Pauline authorship. But assuming a different author creates other problems.

It is preferable to explain the differences by Paul's use of a different amanuenses (or secretary), as well as the more personal rather than theological nature of these letters. Opponents of Pauline authorship claim that the Pastoral Epistles were written by a pseudepigraphic writer (perhaps a disciple of Paul), who wrote at the end of the first century. To put it bluntly, they argue that a later writer claiming to be Paul, wrote the letters -- that pseudepigraphy was common and accepted in citation for term paper the early church. However, it is descriptive the beach clear to me that many bogus letters or gospels, suspected of being written by someone claiming to citation paper, be an apostle, were detected and rejected out of hand by the early church. The early church did not accept pseudepigraphic writings as Scripture! Available in manchester Kindle and PDF e-book formats. For Term? Moreover, this assertion of pseudepigraphy creates several other problems: The letters are far more Pauline than not in language, style, and theology.

The historical situation of the file Ephesian church presupposed in 1 and 2 Timothy fits the period of the 60s much better than it fits what we know of the situation at the end of the first century, when critics claim it was written. There is no adequate occasion and purpose for a pseudepigraphic author to have written these letters, in particular, three such letters. The argument that the author used some genuine fragments of Pauline letters doesn't explain the questions of occasion and purpose. 13. Add to that the nearly unanimous acceptance of the letters as Pauline in for term the early church, I conclude that the letters are genuine, from the person of Paul himself, despite the differences between the Pastoral Epistles and Paul's earlier letters. Essay Romeo Side Story? 14. We've looked at citation some of the charles dickens christmas various issues surrounding these letters. Now it's time to look at 1 and 2 Timothy in some detail. Citation Paper? 1. W.G.

Kmmel, translated by H.C. Thesis Permissions? Kee, Introduction to the New Testament (second edition, Abingdon, 1975), p. 367. For Term Paper? 2. Knight, Pastoral Epistles , p. 13. Permissions? 3. Kelly, Pastoral Epistles , p. Citation For Term Paper? 3. 4. Polycarp, Philippians 4:1 cites 1 Timothy 6:7, 10.

5. Thesis? Tertullian, Against Marcion 5:21. 6. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 2.14.7 quotes 1 Timothy 6:20; 3.3.3 refers to 2 Timothy 4:21. 7. For the theory of Paul's second Roman imprisonment see E.E. Ellis, Pastoral Epistles, DLP 661-662. 8. 1 Clement 5:7; Acts of citation for term, Peter (Vercelli) 1-3, 40; the Muratorian Canon ; Eusebius, Church History 2.22.1-8. 9. According to Eusebius's Chronicle (Jerome, Vir. 1; 5; 12), Paul was martyred together with Peter in the fourteenth year of Nero, 67/68. Contrast Essay Romeo Juliet Vs West Story? 12. J.B.

Lightfoot, Additional Note on the Heresy Combated in the Pastoral Epistles, in Biblical Essays (New York: Macmillan, 1893), p. Paper? 412, cited by Mounce, p. lxxv. 13. I have followed here Fee, pp. 23-26. 14. To explore the issues of authorship in greater detail I recommend the file permissions commentaries of Knight, Towner, Mounce, and Kelly. Copyright 1985-2017, Ralph F. Wilson. pastor joyfulheart.com All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is for term paper free. Do not put this on a website. See legal, copyright, and reprint information. You can purchase one of Dr.

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essay on zapatistas This essay on paper the Zapatistas’ Women’s Revolutionary Law twenty years on, draws on Zapatista women’s reflections, together with a decades-long engagement with indigenous feminism and Zapatismo. Engaging difference through respect rather than negation can also move us beyond impasses within contemporary feminism, political theory, and rights-based activism. “ The capitalists had us believing this idea that women are not valuable” The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government [i]

We know that the Women’s Revolutionary Law was passed by consensus within the ranks of the Zapatista Army for National Liberation (EZLN) many months before their public emergence twenty years ago on January 1, 1994. From one of ups Subcomandante Marcos’ letters, we know that reactions to it were varied within EZLN ranks, and that its acceptance had to be defended vigorously as a central objective in for term paper, the Zapatistas’ struggle for justice. Both Comandanta Ramona and Comandanta Susana spent over four months travelling throughout those then-Zapatista communities. Thesis Permissions! They visited each and every community dialoguing with the Zapatistas collectively through community assemblies, as is the custom of the for term, people of the region. Thesis File Permissions! Once accepted in each Zapatista community and village, it was proposed that the paper, Law be included in the EZLN publication, El Despertador Mexicano, Organo Informativo del EZLN (México, No 1., Diciembre 1993). I remember the novelty of descriptive the beach it, in that December of ’93, when I came across this publication, the first of paper a revolutionary social movement or “guerrilla” movement, which has included as an integral part of its first public appearance its “letter of introduction” so to speak its demands for antithesis in macbeth scene women’s rights.

This was truly innovative at the time. One could hardly believe it, and for term, much less so when the first images appeared confirming the undeniable presence of about the beach women in positions of authority. Citation Paper! It would be a woman a Mayora who would lead the taking of San Cristóbal de las Casas in Chiapas; it would be a woman Comandanta Ramona at the centre of the subsequent peace dialogues in the Cathedral. Ever since, this Law has expressed itself through the Zapatistas’ own practices. Qualitative Thesis Ups! If there is something that has given Zapatismo its distinctive characteristic, its colour and its flavour, it has been its emphasis on including and defending women’s rights as defined through the citation paper, Women’s Revolutionary Law. What has happened to this law over write ups the past twenty years? How is the Law being practiced among the Zapatistas in their everyday lives?

Throughout the Escuelita [little school] in August 2013, in citation, the communities that housed those 1,700 invitees, we heard and saw the possibilities and the advances, but also the difficulties encountered in implementing this Law in all its implications. It must be said that in all of the Escuelita’s sessions, the Zapatistas constantly tempered any possible triumphalism for their success in creating and maintaining their autonomy throughout these years. Antithesis In Macbeth Act 1 7! They often took self-critical positions and made reference to the “little bit” that they have advanced; to the errors they have made throughout this process; how they are trying to citation for term paper, amend them; and how difficult it has been to accomplish what they have “ nos ha costado mucho [It’s been an uphill battle]” From each one of the compare romeo juliet vs west story, five caracoles [civilian units of self-government], their experiences have emerged in detailed descriptions. They have distributed in paper, all four books which they themselves put together as a way to present their work to us. Under the heading Freedom According to the Zapatistas , the four volumes were: I) Autonomous Government I. II) Autonomous Government II. III) The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government. IV) Autonomous Resistance.

In these books, once again, women’s rights have been prioritized. One might think that, as in other revolutionary struggles, the “issue” of women only remains implied or relegated as marginal. But this is not the case here. Zapatismo has defined itself as a radical political movement that places women at ma creative manchester the centre and citation paper, renders them visible. Act 1 Scene 7! In the volume devoted to for term, them ( The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government ), the ten points of the Women’s Revolutionary Law as they were initially outlined are regularly reviewed to see how they have been practiced since then and contrast romeo vs west story, how they are lived today. Each point is listed together with reports on their daily practices, their difficulties, and for term, their advances. In their own voices, Zapatista indigenous women describe to in macbeth 7, us their experiences, priorities, difficulties in taking up command, and for term, their desires for change. Theirs are highly relevant voices for gaining a deep understanding of the process through which indigenous Maya women walk, emerge, accept, and collaborate within the qualitative write ups, Zapatista stratagem. For Term! This process is presently the most successful proposal for constructing another world that is more just for writing women and, indeed, for everyone. And it is one that is created concretely by them through their daily practices. “We are not only in the house or in the kitchen we work together with the male compañeros [ii].” “We go along little by little in this work that is paper, autonomy, and antithesis in macbeth act 1 scene, we are going to encourage others who don’t yet want to get out of the house” affirms a 17 year-old compañera and teacher in the Escuelita . She has shown in citation for term paper, her voice and in her strength, and through the position that she held in thesis permissions, this pedagogical space, that many of paper them have advanced well beyond the understanding we feminists have tended to achieve from “outside” Zapatista territory. “As you know, the Women’s Revolutionary Law was created precisely because of the living conditions experienced by the compañeras ; because they were suffering a lot before.

We now have this Law written down and we have it in the five Caracoles . But this problem that we have does not only belong to the compañeras ; it also includes the essay charles, compañeros because when a compañera is tasked with work, sometimes the compañeros do not let their wives or daughters leave to go do it. There are times when they do not allow them the right to freedom, and because of this problem, the Law also includes the men we will analyze little by little how much we have been able to comply with this law as women.” I have selected these local responses to for term, the question, “How is the Women’s Revolutionary Law lived today in the Caracoles ?” and write ups, present them below in the order of the “Ten Points” themselves: First: Women have the right to participate in the revolutionary struggle in the place and at the level that their capacity and will dictates, without any discrimination based on race, creed, colour, or political affiliation. From Caracol II, Oventik, Highlands Zone of Chiapas: “What we have accomplished has not been accomplished 100%. [several] compañeras are taking charge of education and health as coordinators in the zone when this law was made it was not because women wanted to give orders dominate their husbands, their compañero we do not want to create something that continues on the same history [of domination] that we have been involved in citation, where the compañeros rule and they are chauvinists and now the compañeras rule and now the compañeros are valued less Second: Women have the thesis, right to work and to receive a just salary.

From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “Women have the for term paper, same rights as men to receive the same salary because we are of the compare romeo vs west side, same blood here there are no salaries in the organization, whether to males or to citation paper, females” From Oventik: “ nobody within the antithesis in macbeth 7, organization is salaried unless the compañera goes to the city” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “those who deserve a salary are those women who work in the cities They are the ones that deserve a just salary”[iii] Third: Women have the right to decide how many children they will have and take care of. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We as women have the right to decide how to citation, live in our homes and we have the right to decide with our partner how many children we can have and essay about, take care of. We have the right to not be obligated by anyone to have more or less children, not to be obligated to use birth control if we don’t want to, and we have the right to have our decisions and opinions respected. In our autonomy, we want all of these rights to be respected. Before, the bad government in our villages would promote a lot of citation for term bad ideas, saying that women are worthless and that they have no right to speak.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We saw it was better if decisions were made between partners”

Fourth: Women have the right to participate in community affairs and hold positions of antithesis in macbeth scene authority if they are freely and democratically elected. From Caracol II, Oventik: “Here we are able to say that this is now being achieved” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “As women we have the same rights as men, we have the for term, right to decide which duties we can carry out in the communities as we can now take up positions as agentas , comisariadas , and promotoras of health, sexual reproduction and education.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We see that this is antithesis in macbeth act 1 7, being fulfilled in for term paper, our zone” Fifth: Women have the scene 7, right to primary care with regard to their health and nutrition . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, we see that some communities do have their health clinics. Where health clinics exist, it is not difficult to citation for term paper, find the compañeras in good health, and they can also find medical attention for their children there. The women go with the health promotoras to the clinic, and vs west side, here is where this point is for term paper, being realized in some communities if there are no clinics they go to other nearby communities that do have clinics.” “In terms of feeding ourselves in our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate. Essay Charles! It is what we see in our zone, that we do not abandon farming what is ours, the chayote , the yucca (manioc/cassava), the squash, and paper, everything else that exists in our community. If we do not do this, if we do not produce, then we will die of hunger.

It is there where malnutrition comes from, when we do not eat what we have” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we work in the field, harvesting our natural foods such as corn, beans, coffee, and other things.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “With women who are nursing their child or are pregnant, it is important to eat well, rather than how sometimes women are the last ones to contrast romeo vs west story, eat, that is, if food was leftover and if not, then no we see that this is already being changed.” Sixth: Women have the right to for term paper, education. From Caracol II, Oventik: “In the essay, case of girls, when they are in their community this is accomplished all the more because they attend the Zapatista Rebel Autonomous Primary Schools (EPRAZ). From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we do not want it to be like before when we were really exploited, when we did not have a good education as we have today with women we also continue moving forward in education.”

From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “In our zone, we talk about citation for term, how women did not go to school before. When older women were asked about it, they said that they did not go to school because their mothers or fathers did not send them. It is qualitative, not their fault if they did not learn to read and write, and we realized that it was also not their mothers’ fault. The capitalists had us believing this idea, their story that women are not valuable; that if a girl is born then she is worthless. We realized that the citation for term, parents of the family were not at fault. The blame is with this bad idea that they have put into our heads.” “in our struggle we have everything, we have education.” Seventh: Women have the right to choose their partners and compare contrast essay romeo vs west side story, not be forced to marry. From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, as we see today, the compañeras decide who they would like to marry. Citation! But there are other ideas coming from elders that believe that the past custom should be respected. And so there are occasions when young women have not exercised this right yet, it must be exercised with the in macbeth scene, revolutionary struggle in paper, mind.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “It is no longer how it used to be when the thesis file, fathers and for term paper, mothers would force us women to marry someone they chose we have the right to decide who our partner is and who we want to marry.”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “We know that before they could not decide they were traded in for liquor, for animals, for antithesis in macbeth 7 money the majority of the fathers now ask their daughters if they want to marry or who they want to marry, and this is why we say that we have made progress on this point.” Eighth: No woman will be beaten or physically mistreated by either family members or strangers. The crimes of rape and attempted rape will be severely punished . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “There are still cases of this in our communities because that is a bad custom that persists in citation paper, the mind, that contaminates, where machismo still exists: ‘I am stronger than you, so you have to respect me,’ are words that still exist Those of us who have been authorities, the ones that have spent some time working, perhaps we understand all of the talks that we receive but there are some compañeros that do not” From Caracol IV, Morelia: “there are also some things that are not being carried out; there are still compañeras that are mistreated and writing manchester, there is still fear in demanding rights.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “When we travel, we sometimes come across accidents, and sometimes the men do not behave while travelling Some men from other organizations mock those of us women who go out to fill a post, laughing when they hear that we are tasked with responsibilities they say that what we are doing is worthless. This is where the problem is, but in those organizations there are many problems of rape and mistreatment, while with us, Zapatistas, it is not that way because we are always explaining the Women’s Law.” Ninth: Women can occupy positions of authority in the organization and earn military rank in the revolutionary armed forces.

From Caracol IV, Morelia: “as women we hold authority posts in citation for term paper, areas such as autonomous health, education, and thesis write, production. There are compañeras who have understood the work well, although there have been obstacles that we encounter as we go about our work. Citation Paper! But we have come out to spread our efforts” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “Over in the northern zone, this is thesis permissions, being done as we say, although we are moving along slowly in participation. We have compañeras as regional authorities, and some also participate as milicianas , so this is being carried out. ”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “we say that this point is being carried out paper, because there are compañeras integrated in all authority positions. There are women at the local, regional, and zone level positions . And there are compañeras occupying different military ranks they have exercised their rights depending on their will and capacity.” Tenth: Women have all the rights and obligations set out by the revolutionary laws and thesis write ups, regulations. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We well know that in our Zapatista struggle, that we don’t only say that we have rights, but that in citation for term, our autonomous struggle, we have obligations to realize these rights as we want to within our villages by way of organizing.” “In 1994 it became known that we had the Women’s Law. Essay Charles Dickens Carol! It is so good that this law existed and that we have been able to citation for term paper, participate The compañeras suffered a lot before ’94: humiliation, mistreatment, rape.

But none of that ever mattered to the government and compare romeo juliet story, neither to the landowners. Neither of them ever took women into consideration. Citation! The landowners had the compañeros in peonage, and the compañeras had to write ups, get up very early to for term paper, work. Those poor women had to continue working alongside the men. There was much slavery, but we don’t want this anymore and that’s why we as compañeras began to participate. What we want now is for our autonomy to function, for women to participate, to not stay behind. We will continue to go forward so that the compare contrast essay romeo vs west side story, bad government can see that we will not let them exploit us as they exploited our ancestors.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “What we seek is something like a re-construction of humanity that is what we are trying to change; another world is what we want it is the struggle that we are all a part of, men and women, because it is not a struggle of citation for term women and compare romeo story, it is not a struggle of for term paper men. When one speaks of a revolution, they go together, among men and women, and that is the struggle.” “We women who are here today know who made that Revolutionary Law. Somebody had to qualitative, struggle for it and somebody defended us.

Who was that somebody who struggled for us, the compañeras ? Comandanta Ramona was the one who put that effort in for us. Paper! She did not know how to read or write, or speak Spanish. Write! But why do we, as compañeras , not make the effort? She is an example, that compañera who already made the citation for term paper, effort, for us to ma creative, continue moving forward and keep on citation for term working in order to contrast juliet vs west, demonstrate what we know in our organization.” Reflections from “outside” Zapatista territory. Through the phrases in the above reports, we can track the progress made today with respect to the so-called “Women’s Law.” A prime example is when a compañera says that it is not the fault of the fathers and mothers who did not send their daughters to school previously. This attitude, they tell us, is a product of “the capitalists [who] had us believing this idea their story that women are not valuable.” They affirm that it was capitalist ideology that infused their minds with this devaluation. It is not the citation for term paper, fault of the mothers or the write ups, fathers who did not allow women to paper, study, nor was it their own fault when they did not put in efforts to study.

It is a product of the slave condition they were forced to live. Here a sophisticated analysis appears, one which some psychologists call the thesis write, “internalization of oppression.” It expresses itself when we ourselves become convinced of citation paper our own lack of value as we appropriate and reproduce the values of the dominant order that reduces and exploits us.[iv] The process of self-awareness appears in various responses throughout Volume III: Participation of Women in Autonomous Government , where they recount their experiences as Zapatistas. As they have mentioned many times, they are “working under sheer political awareness,” putting into practice their demands for autonomy and freedom as women. Today they recognize that this internalization/appropriation of the dominant values continues to be present in the minds of their cultural environment, in writing manchester, males, fathers, brothers, sons, and even within themselves because it “contaminates” the mind. Rights and duties, individual and collective. Also worthy of comment is the recognition, by the compañeras , that it is not only rights that are demanded, but that they also have a counterpart: accepting these rights’ corresponding obligations and citation for term paper, duties.

This has been theorized as the “inter-relational” aspect of rights.[v] This is a mature and reflexive appropriation of what claiming women’s rights implies. It is not about claiming “my rights” without limits, without measure, but about constructing them within a new normativity that emerges from the process of constructing their collective autonomy. “It is not my right only and I get to essay about, do whatever I want.” This level of analysis also appears when they refer to citation for term paper, girls’ freedom to decide whom they will marry. This right to essay dickens carol, select their partner, which most young girls today exercise, must adhere to citation, and enter into essay about, harmony with the citation for term, Zapatista struggle’s proposals and priorities. Permissions! “It must be exercised with the revolutionary struggle in mind.” With these phrases, a profound collective and inter-relational elaboration is for term, expressed on romeo vs west side story how to go about walking along living women’s rights fully linked and interwoven with collective rights. These phrases clearly demonstrate that women’s rights are not conceptualized as the rights of individual entities that would respond only to the needs of an “individual” woman. They also do not refer to a collective made up exclusively of women.

Rather, they go “ juntos y a la par” [“together and citation paper, side by side”]. “when one speaks of a revolution, they go together, among men and women, and that is the struggle.” The proposal here is that women’s struggle is qualitative thesis write, not conceivable without men’s struggle. A revolutionary struggle consists of both men and women, and there are many references throughout Volume III on the inextricability of for term paper all walking together. These references implicitly resolve the interrogations put forth by many academics over the exercise of ma creative writing human rights. Their analyses debate what is for term, convenient and/or what are the compare contrast romeo side, appropriate ways of resolving the dilemma between prioritizing the individual or the collective subject of rights. They assume a hierarchical ordering to the priorities of struggle: either individual rights take priority, or collective rights do. Their philosophical reference is the “principle of the excluded third.” That is, they pit seemingly mutually exclusive categories against citation for term, each other, understanding them within a hierarchical ordering: individual rights are first and later collective rights, or vice versa. The Zapatistas’ thinking has another reference. For them, individual rights and about the beach, collective rights form a duality of opposites that are at once complimentary.[vi] The foundation of and for term paper, referent to this duality’s poles, fluidly opposed, allows them to speak and act according to a fusion of both sets of rights in their practice as well as in their thought. This fluid duality prevents hierarchization; its range is horizontal.

They speak and present us with a way of simultaneously living individual rights (of women) with those emerging from the collective rights of their people in struggle. Qualitative Thesis! “What we seek is something like a reconstruction of humanity” It is the very quest to create another world. In the for term paper, overall Zapatista proposal, the struggle for charles carol women’s rights is citation for term paper, never arranged hierarchically as an file inferior or secondary end. Citation For Term! “This is why for us there is no hierarchy of domains: we do not claim that the struggle for land takes priority over gender justice On the contrary, we think that all emphases are necessary”[vii] This inclusive form, based on simultaneity of ma creative doing/thinking, while seemingly paradoxical, is part of the Mesoamerican philosophical heritage that is citation, also revealed in the story of the cat/dog or the dog/cat.[viii] This epistemic category of essay about the beach thought is present, in citation for term paper, a certain way, in the fusion of the dickens christmas carol, cat/dog and its many metaphorical adventures that allow it to citation for term, continue being a dog and permissions, a cat at the same time. This is how they move beyond the “encasing of the entire world into a closed box of for term mutually exclusive options.” We have to rethink the contrast juliet story, world, struggle, and paper, gender beyond binary dichotomies in writing, order to “fully understand the grammar of the Zapatista rebellion.”[ix] Women walking in equilibrium and on a par with men. Continuing on in the analysis of the compañeras’ responses on how they live the Women’s Law today, some emphasize that their struggle against machismo does not imply that what they now seek is to dominate males or “value them less.” On the paper, contrary, they are asking for act 1 scene 7 a “reconstruction” of society, a different ordering where dominant and dominated do not exist: whether they be women or men. They want to citation paper, escape the inevitable hierarchies found in the world of capitalist production and in any thought rooted in mutually exclusive categories. (The duality of opposites and complimentary inspires and sustains their efforts as, again, this duality prevents hierarchization in that its range is horizontal.) It is another world they seek to build through their demands as women, and in living their Revolutionary Law of file Zapatista women. Beyond this proposal, another line of analysis would lead us to stress that there is pragmatic reason to include males. The compañeros , the women tell us, “sometimes do not allow them the right to freedom” to citation for term paper, a compañera who has been assigned a task and descriptive, “because of this problem, the Law has also to paper, include men” so that the Law can be carried out. It is a search for a masculinity without overtones of domination and with an understanding of how to live on a par, the fullness of the Women’s Revolutionary Law.

“They say that women are not worth anything.” This grievance comes to us from the voice of descriptive the beach Comandanta Esther at the plenary session of the Congreso de la Unión [House of Representatives] in Mexico City in 2001. She turned to the public audience in the Chamber of Deputies to speak about one of their “bad customs” that they were attempting to eradicate. She assured us “I don’t tell this story so that you feel sorry for us We are struggling to change this and we will continue doing so”[x] What Zapatista women show us here is that culture is paper, neither monolithic nor static. In their deliberations on how to implement the Women’s Law in the Caracoles today, we find an descriptive about analytical element for for term further comprehension.

It is a historical review of how this devaluation of women originated. Dickens! It is for term, interesting to note the thesis permissions, similarities that may exist between the Zapatistas’ reflections and scholars’ use of the citation for term paper, Psychohistorical analytical method, or that of the History of Mentalities. From this perspective, it is no longer simply correcting a “bad custom” that exists in the Maya villages and write ups, communities where Zapatismo settled into. For Term Paper! It is also not about simply changing “bad customs.” The Zapatistas speak up denouncing its origin: the the beach, exploitative practices from the plantation and land owners. It was these plantation owners who considered women to for term paper, be inferior. Antithesis In Macbeth 7! It was they who put “this bad idea into our heads.” One dramatic aspect of this devaluation of women is the “ derecho de pernada ” [“right of the first night;” literally, “right of the paper, thigh”] whereby landowners had the “right” to abuse and use young indigenous women for their sexual satisfaction. This wretched “right of the compare contrast juliet, first night” was still in force recently, and paper, the rape of in macbeth act 1 indigenous women did not occur only on paper young virgins.[xi] Indigenous women can report multiple cases of abuse later in the lives of many of their compañeras , for thesis example, when plantation owners, landowners, and coletos [urban males from San Cristóbal de las Casas] raped and abused Indian women claiming they were “improving the race.” Rosario Castellanos’ literary stories report these abuses in Chiapas.[xii] These violent chauvinistic customs tried to transform these women into objects and property to be at the disposal of those macho rapists. They abused with impunity “those human beings” that are Indian, poor, and female, encouraging through their contempt, the devaluation of for term women by essay the beach, their own fathers, partners, brothers, sons and more broadly, within their customary habits. Marisol, a mature woman, and teacher during the August 2013 session of the Escuelita openly referred to for term paper, the “right of the thesis file, first night.” “Our grandmothers were raped,” she told us indignantly and for term, explained further: “our grandfathers carried that same idea from their patrones y capataces [bosses and descriptive essay the beach, foremen] , not taking us women into consideration.” Reflections on the so-called “exchange” of women.

We know through multiple ethnographic studies and citation for term paper, monographs that this exchange has existed in many cultures worldwide. Its basis, both in ma creative, matrilineal and patrilineal societies, is for term, that women are especially valuable for their capacity to bring new beings into the world. Moreover, ancient economies were often centered on the family.[xiii] When a family member of the “productive core” abandons the family for example, to integrate into another familial network as would happen through marriage that member must be replaced by another or by goods that would compensate for the loss in essay charles carol, the family’s subsistence production. These customs, in all their ethnic and historical variations, are based not on the devaluation of women but in their valuation, and citation for term paper, consequently, in the desire to acquire compensation for the loss of their contributions to the production unit. Decisions over this sort of women’s worth and the compensation required in exchange for thesis her leaving one domestic “productive” unit for another have generally been made under masculine dominance. Males decide what the compensation should be, and such decisions go through male-dominated gender hierarchies, although there exist some agrarian societies where male dominance does not take place, and where women are the ones who make these decisions. This exchange within households has been ritualized in multiple ways.

It is clear that the Zapatistas insist on transcending these patriarchal traditions. Anthropologically, the transformation of this custom, from a form of compensation to something that can be considered as a “sale” of citation for term paper women is a process that has transited across time and cultures since antiquity. Essay! Under contemporary capitalist societal values, where everything is subject to sale and valuation under market logic, this change has been induced made necessary. It has taken diverse paths before reaching the point today that the for term, compañeras Zapatistas critique: “they were traded in for liquor, for thesis animals, for money” Here, we might be able to initiate a type of clinical anamnesis reviewing this process as it happens in the Highlands Zone and throughout the State of Chiapas more generally. Certainly, the for term paper, intensification of patriarchal values reinforced this custom. In Chiapas they reached the romeo vs west story, point of frenzy with the “right of the first night.”[xiv] The rape and abuse of citation for term women with impunity, coupled with the colonialist contempt for the “ indio ” [literally, “indian;” the label often holds derogatory undertones] and the slavery to which the indigenous peoples were subjected to, contributed to the transformation of women, patriarchally considered a “value” that must be adequately replaced; or an object of scorn to be discarded and exchanged for liquor, a cow, or money. Women’s productive and reproductive contributions to the domestic unit and to the community, as well as a review of the essay dickens christmas carol, several kinds of patriarchal abuses suffered by women, have been theorized profusely within Marxist feminisms.[xv] Yet the main paradox of this custom is that one cannot sell what is for term, considered worthless.[xvi] Through the Zapatistas’ organization, the compañeras have dramatically advanced in resisting this “bad custom” of exchanging women by 7, putting forward constructive proposals for eradicating it. Field research in citation for term paper, the same region reports that this is the essay, area of citation paper Mexico where human rights violations are most frequent, precisely because of the so called “sale” of women.[xvii]

Agroecology and subsistence farming. In many of the Caracoles, they have developed original methods of permissions farming for autonomous subsistence. This subsistence is citation, never absolute, as these methods also generate surpluses that they sell on thesis ups the market. New methods combine with traditional ones to generate novel contributions. This could be a proposal which, if replicated worldwide, might offer alternatives to the environmental crisis we are living now. Regenerating the fields through agroecological means could foster the survival of not only human beings but of the entire planet. Citation! Indeed, it could offer ways of ensuring food sovereignty. “Family Farming” is qualitative write ups, one theme driving the United Nations (UN) in 2014 throughout the world. For Term! The Zapatistas, well ahead of the UN’s project, having been promoting it for thesis write many years now. “Culture is working the land.”[xviii] “They will not be able to take away our culture. We will not allow it.

We continue working in producing everything that we need, from citation paper seeds to everything else that is necessary the seeds that we continue selecting and storing.” It is a call to support their own ancestral self-sustaining cultivation traditions which the Zapatistas know are appropriate to essay juliet side, their lands. In this restored tradition, the improvement of nutrition mentioned in the fifth point of the Women’s Revolutionary law takes hold. “In terms of feeding ourselves in our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and citation, compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate that we do not abandon farming what is ours, the chayote , the yuca [manioc/cassava], the squash” In an essay christmas carol era in citation paper, which the small farm has by now been obliterated in most countries, and in which peasants, in order to survive, must emigrate and abandon their land and thesis permissions, crops for other activities in other places, the Zapatistas enact a better future on the land. These experiments and their successes, although still in their initial stages, promise a revitalization of traditional farming practices and a return to citation, a survival agriculture that many alternative projects worldwide today seek. The Zapatistas have started on a path that contributes a future of hope, which does not only allow them to thesis file, survive, but also serves as an for term paper example and as encouragement so that other people and other impoverished rural communities take their subsistence back into their own hands. Healthcare: revitalizing traditional methods.

The achievements of the Women’s Revolutionary Law on issues of the right to primary health care and in macbeth act 1 scene 7, nutrition reveal the Zapatistas’ path that at once offers a service and a political contribution. They have created various health facilities, and in fact, just about for term, every community or village has its own “ casa de salud” that could be called a health clinic. Through them, the compare essay juliet, Zapatistas receive primary care, and they have insisted for years on revitalizing and relearning traditional Mesoamerican medical practices. Some illnesses are treated through herbal medicines, whose effectiveness have been proven in Mexico since the pre-Hispanic era. For Term! It is known, for example, that in Oaxtepec, a place in the State of Morelos, ancient Mexicans established a botanical garden with well over 400 species of medicinal and healing plants. They were experimenting with these herbs in ma creative writing manchester, order to find appropriate doses. This was all being practiced before the Spanish invasion.

In addition to citation, the revitalization and descriptive the beach, recovery of knowledges through herbal teas and poultices, and through recipes of concentrated healing herbs, the for term paper, tradition of midwifery has been reappropriated and today flourishes. It is ma creative manchester, practiced in each casa de salud , together with massages and paper, manteadas (manipulations of the foetus), attention is given to the process of essay about the beach pregnancy through the paper, ingestion of medicinal teas. Ma Creative Writing! This traditional prenatal and childbirth care has been reclaimed through their very precise efforts to recover these techniques of ancestral midwifery, whose level of success surprised Fray Bernardino de Sahagún in the sixteenth century, as detailed extensively in his General History of the Things of New Spain . The massages and for term, manipulations that re-set bones and heal twisted or injured joints and tendons belong to another one of those ancient healing traditions that have been recovered. These are knowledges of female “bonesetters” that continue to be practiced in many parts of ma creative manchester contemporary Mexico. Today, Zapatismo recovers and reappropriates them as part of their heritage. It is a cultural recovery and a cultural defense, as they told us during the Escuelita . In Mexico, as in the Mesoamerican region in general, those who practice traditional medicine are mostly women. Citation For Term! The bonesetters, midwives, and herbal healers are the permissions, medical service providers in both the casas de salud and the bigger health clinics throughout Zapatista territory.[xix] These healing capacities are much appreciated collectively, and provide women a community space of respect, self-esteem, and power. It is mostly Zapatista female health promoters who are engaged in these tasks and preserve ancestral knowledges, relearning those that have been lost. This allows for a combination of paper traditional Maya medicine with allopathic care both in casas de salud and in permissions, the health clinics in each Caracol . The clinics that have been constructed in the Caracoles can then offer the citation for term paper, highest quality attention, making allopathic medication accessible, as well as offering an infrastructure that allows for ma creative manchester complicated and delicate surgical interventions.

Tempering divisiveness: political gains through community services in education, health, and justice. The health care offered by citation paper, the State is of bad quality and often inexistent. It is well known that in rural regions, many people must walk hours and hours before reaching the file permissions, nearest Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia (SSA) health clinic. Citation For Term! Frequently, when they arrive they find that there is no service, that the doctor is out, or that they do not have the medicine needed. The Zapatistas have made up for this absence and offer their own services, and it is well known that they provide medical attention to all adjacent villages and communities, many of whom are non-Zapatistas.

They are indigenous “brothers” and in macbeth act 1 7, “sisters” as they told us during the lessons at the Escuelita . They care for these non- and sometimes even anti-Zapatista brothers with the same care and speed. Needless to say, in offering quality services to all who need it in those areas abandoned by official services, the Zapatistas have been able to defeat rivalries and confrontations fomented by for term paper, the three levels of thesis file permissions state power (municipal, state, and citation for term paper, federal) that seek to deal with the peasants’ struggles for justice by dismantling the antithesis in macbeth scene 7, solidarity links among them. The methods used to divide the for term, indigenous communities include every kind of handout (for example, the programs “Oportunidades” or “PROCEDE”), or even arming indigenous people so they become mercenaries who, in exchange for payment, function as paramilitaries at the service of the compare essay story, State. Once becoming illegal soldiers, these indigenous attack the citation for term paper, Zapatistas with the intention of ruining their autonomous project. The services the qualitative, Zapatistas provide to indigenous people living in adjacent areas to non-Zapatistas and citation for term, even ex-Zapatistas include, beyond the antithesis scene 7, health services mentioned above, the possibility for children to study in the autonomous schools as well as participate in conflict resolution for all kinds of offenses through the Zapatistas’ own form of “autonomous justice.” Throughout the sessions of the August 2013 Escuelita , we also had the citation paper, opportunity to learn in detail about how they resignify, broaden, and thesis file permissions, improve, autonomous education and autonomous justice, and for term paper, how they redefine them conceptually by putting them into practice. Through their proposals that address community needs in scene 7, health care, education, and justice, the Zapatistas move toward dissolving the inter-community clashes purposefully created by the State. Their calm response, given without violence and citation, even without raising their voice, without using force, and also offering a solution to descriptive about the beach, the needs of for term their indigenous “brothers and sisters,” has been the most effective antidote against the fratricidal confrontations that the “bad government” and the geopolitical models of the writing, Global North have fomented. Per the instructions found in citation paper, the counterinsurgency manuals developed by the Global North, “ethnic wars” should be promoted or manufactured and “religious fundamentalisms” should be created or intensified in order to divide, control, and destroy the justice struggles that start from below.

What would we write today if we could attempt to sum up what the Zapatista experience shows us about the women’s struggle to live and practice the qualitative write, Women’s Revolutionary Law? We can anticipate that these struggles do not end here. It is a process that continues on citation and on. It is also a process that transforms itself. Returning now to the experience of the Escuelita , we recognize how the ma creative, Women’s Revolutionary Law has advanced through practice. For Term! As it is ups, inserted into for term, the Zapatistas’ collectivity, any conventional feminist approach, whether theoretical or practical, cannot help us here.

From the comments we have detailed and contrast romeo juliet side, expounded upon here, we see that the Women’s Law escapes any rigid framework. It proposes and resolves some practical feminist demands, such as women’s “empowerment” and the advance of women’s “reproductive rights.” Under the aegis of Zapatista autonomy, with the enormous differences this political context offers, what is paper, found is an “other” type of empowerment and an “other” type of sexual and reproductive rights, as they are transformed and antithesis in macbeth scene, permeated by collective identity, interdependence, and paper, inter-relatedness. The application of the Women’s Revolutionary Law coincides with some feminists’ search for equality, widening the concept of “equality” with their notion that “we are equal because we are different.”[xx] It also seems to follow some theoretical legacies of the feminism of difference which it also subverts with the expression of “egalitarian aspirations.”[xxi] It broadens all referents, expands them, transgresses them, and joins them “illogically” with its practices of writing inclusion into the autonomous collectivity that exceeds, while seeming to for term, embrace, the narrow categories of gender, binaries and the mutually exclusive notions of the feminine and the masculine, and those feminist pursuits to correct them. The Zapatista women’s struggles and demands for their rights do not fit neatly in any feminist theories or practices; they transcend them all. They sometimes sound like ecofeminism, egalitarianism, the antithesis, revindication of difference, empowerment, reproductive rights, and sometimes like an elaboration of gender racialization in all its complex theorizations. If their own music “has the rhythm of polka-balada-corrido-ranchera-cumbia-rock-ska-metal-reggae-trova-punk-hiphop-rap-and any others that want to pile up,”[xxii] it is because their proposal, as it is lived today within Zapatista autonomous practice, contains every colour, sound, tonality, and dissonance.

And if we manage to citation, perceive them: “there will then be new eyes and ears that understand our commitment.” Because, as in Subcomandante Marcos’ story of the cat-dog, a big challenge for the deep understanding of Zapatista women’s history is writing, that “all categorical options are a trap The answer is neither here nor there. For Term! It is better to make a new path that goes where one wants to go.” This new path is being created right now by Zapatista women. English translation by Linda Quiquivix. Written in the months after attending the first round of the Zapatistas’ recent Little School initiative in writing, August 2013, Marcos’ essay was first published in Spanish by the Universidad de la Tierra/CIDECI, Chiapas (2014) and now appears in French as a chapter in a book entitled, Zapatisme: La rébellion qui dure (Paris, France: Syllepse/CETRI, 2014). Citation For Term Paper! The English translation is published here for the first time. [i] EZLN, Freedom According to the Zapatistas, Volume III: Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government,” San Cristóbal de las Casas, Mexico, 2013, p.72. [ii] The Zapatistas often refer to a member of the organization as compañero (m.) or compañera (f.). [iii] op. cit. p. Thesis Ups! 67; Neither women nor men within Zapatista autonomous territory receive salaries for for term paper their service to the EZLN. In the autonomous Zapatista communities, as is charles dickens, true of for term paper ancestral and essay dickens christmas, contemporary indigenous communities, all work done to benefit the collective is conceived of as “service,” in line with servir y no servirse [to serve and not serve oneself], one of for term paper Zapatismo’s seven guiding principles.

The point in writing manchester, the Women’s Revolutionary Law that demands that women must receive a just salary for for term paper their work is a demand that applies to the context of work done in non-Zapatista territory, specifically in ma creative, cities where women and men live according to the neoliberal market economy which devalues women’s work vis-à-vis men’s. [iv] Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the paper, Earth, 1965. [v] Joy, Morny, “Womens Rights and Religions: a Contemporary Review,” In Journal of Feminist Studies in Religions , Vol 29, No 1, Spring 2013, (p9) [vi] Sylvia Marcos, Tomado de los labios: genero y eros en Mesoamerica , Quito: Abya Yala, 2012, cap. 2. [vii] Subcomandante Marcos, “Ni el Centro ni la Periferia, Parte V.- Oler el negro. El calendario y la geografia del miedo” en Primer Coloquio Internacional In Memoriam Andrés Aubry , SCLC ,Cideci Unitierra Ediciones, Chiapas, México. Antithesis Scene! 2009, p 230. [viii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx. [x] Sylvia Marcos, “Las fronteras interiorres: El movimiento de mujeres indígenas y el feminismo en México” en Dialogo y Diferencia: Retos feministas a la globalización , CEIICH UNAM, México, 2008, p.205.

[xi] Olivera, M. 1977, Presentacion, Primer Congreso Estudios de la Mujer, México, DF. [xii] Rosario Castellanos, Oficio de Tinieblas, Miradas, México, 1962. [xiii] Claude Meillasoux Mujeres Graneros y Capitales , Siglo XXI, México, 1980. [xiv] Engels, El origen de la familia , la propiedad privada y el estado, 1884. [xv] Silvia Federici, La Revolucion Feminista Inacabada: Mujeres, reproducción social y lucha por lo común , Escuela Calpulli, México, 2013. [xvii] Rosario Valdez, Encuesta ENSADEMI: Encuesta de Salud y Derechos de las Mujeres Indígenas , Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, México, 2008. [xviii] Jean Robert, notas de la Escuelita CIDECI, 2013, Profesor Joel.

[xix] Carlos Zolla citado en Sylvia Marcos “ Mujeres Cosmovisión y Medicina: Las curanderas mexicanas”, en Orlandina de Oliveira, ed. Trabajo. For Term Paper! Poder, Sexualidad , PIEM Colegio de México, México, 1992 [1989]. [xx] Sylvia Marcos, “Las zapatistas caminan su palabra,” Ponencia Seminario Internacional , CIDECI Unitierra SCLC, enero 2012. [xxi] Lemus Doris, Revista Reflexión Política , Vol 15, No 30 (2013), y este está en las páginas 124 - 137, Bucaramanga, Colombia. [xxii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx.

Please note that many people who photograph the EZLN do so anonymously and make their work sharable for ma creative manchester non-commercial use. Such is the case here, so we do not have credits to paper, attach. Sylvia Marcos is a scholar committed to indigenous movements throughout the Americas. Essay! As a university professor and researcher she has proposed a new vision in the field of feminist critical epistemology, Mesoamerican religions, and women within indigenous movements, while promoting an anti-hegemonic feminist practice, theory, and hermeneutics. Her most recent books are a collection of essays entitled Mujeres, Indigenas, Rebeldes, Zapatistas (Distrito Federal, Mexico: Ediciones Eon, 2011) and a co-edited book Senti-pensar el genero (Taller del Mago, Mexico, 2013), co-edited with Georgina Mendez and Juan Lopez Intzin. We encourage anyone to comment, please consult the.

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