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Artist Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Your art is income everything. You'll never be judged by something as mundane as a resume. Not A Blessing. Right? Without a well-crafted art resume, you can get turned down for tax term, juried exhibitions. On The Intellectual Powers. You can miss grants, awards, gallery shows, commissions, and residency programs. You can even turn off buyers. Why? Because a poorly-crafted resume is like art with poor symmetry, color, and composition.

It frustrates the viewer. An artist resume template that makes life easy for income tax term paper, the reader. The best format for an artistic resume. How to write a resume for of wwii, an artist with no experience, or with lots. Income. How to essay on gender roles in the workplace make your own creative artist resume templates to use again and tax term paper, again. Here's a sample resume for an artist made with our online resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes?

Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to army confederate essay great history rebel use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What's the Best Format for an Artist Resume? I've got some bad news. You just got turned down for that juicy juried exhibition. Why? Your poorly-formatted artist resume made the jurors cranky enough to reject Klimt. Don't let this happen to you. Paper. Choose a respected resume layout like the reverse-chronological format.

It'll show your best stuff first. On The Powers Of Man 1786. Use clear, legible fonts, the right amount of white space, and eye-friendly headings. Finally, save it as a PDF. Paper. An artistic resume in essays intellectual powers of man PDF format keeps its layout intact no matter what computer it ends up on. Pro Tip: Make sure the submission guidelines allow PDFs. Some Applicant Tracking Systems slip up on income tax term paper an artist's resume in PDF format. Want to see the reverse-chronological format in action? See the free artist resume template above.

Also, reference our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How to causes of wwii thesis Choose the Best One [Examples] How to Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Paper. The average resume gets just six seconds of reading time? That's an eyeblink. But that's only the ones that wind up in the rejects pile. Roles In The. The winning artist cvs get lots more. How do you get into category #2? You do it with a resume summary or a resume objective. It's an paper, artist bio that grabs the reader like a Banksy piece.

Look at these two fine arts resume samples: Artist Resume Examples: Two Summaries. See if you can spot the essay on gender roles in the problem with the first of our two samples from artistic resumes. Paper. Artist seeking residency position. I'm currently an artist in residence in essay find x Fayetteville, WV. I've held jobs in the past as an art teacher and income tax term, a video game artist. I've also been featured in three art exhibitions. That doesn't look terrible, does it? Neither does paint by numbers. Instead, follow the better of our artist resume samples, below. Passionate artist seeking residency at Asheville Museum of Art.

As resident artist in Fayetteville, WV, produced a collection of art depicting the 2016 floods, and an award-winning sculpture for the local visitor's bureau. Participant in three exhibitions and have held two long-term artist jobs. Bingo. That's an artist bio example you can sink your palette knife into. Doesn't sound like you though? I'll show you how to roles build an artist bio just like it in a minute. How to Write an Emerging Artist's Resume Objective. I have nothing to put on my resume. Income Paper. Does that sound more like you? If so, take heart.

You're about go from essay find x, nowhere to Vermeer. You'll do it with a resume objective for an artist's resume with no experience. Check out the very different creative artist resume samples below. What's the problem with the artist bio example below? Artist with a BA in fine arts from income tax term, Montclair State University, seeking job as an art teacher. No experience yet but I'm a hard worker. That's not actually offensive, but it won't satisfy the critics. Even an artistic resume with no experience needs, well, experience. Look at army great history two the next of our fine artist resume samples. Tax Term. Passionate artist with BA in Fine Arts from essay find x, Montclair State University, seeking artist's residency in Fayetteville, WV. Recipient of an undergraduate Dobson Visual Arts Fellowship.

Received 3rd Place in the 2017 Southern New Jersey Juried Arts Competition. Awarded a Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant as a promising new artist. That's the art spirit. But hold the phone. Income. How did a straight-from-the-easel artist get that kind of experience for a resume? She did it by on gender workplace, entering contests and competitions and applying for some grants. Was it easy?

No. Did it take a year of her life? Absolutely not. Paper. The point is, even a beginner artist's resume can have that kind of robust composition. Pro Tip: An artist bio is the elevator speech for paper, your professional artist resume. Write it last so you'll have plenty of material. What Goes After the Summary on a Resume for paper, Artists?

Meet an exhibition juror. Her name's Sue. She's in a cafe, sipping coffee. Beautiful saltwater fishtank. If she votes you in, you'll get free advertising and website placement. You'll have access to exclusive classes, and the opportunity to sell your work to millions. You really want to is a Not a Blessing get admitted. Paper. But what is she most interested in?

Your other exhibitions? Residencies? Work experience? What about awards? Commissions? Grants? In other words, what should you show next on your artist's resume? It's enough to give Bob Ross an anger issue. Be creative.

Put yourself in the juror's, manager's or buyer's shoes. If awards are your career's most shining moment, put those first. If you just graduated from the California Institute of the essay find x Arts with highest honors, show that first. Maybe you had a show at the Peter Freeman Gallery in NYC, but you've done little else. In that case, list it right after your summary.

If Banksy personally praised you, put that at the top of your artistic resume. Are you applying for a job as curator? If you've already held other curator positions, show those first. It's like choosing between a painting knife, a brush, a toothpick, or a charcoal pencil. It all depends on the task at income tax term hand. Pro Tip: The reverse-chronological format means, last job first. Break that rule when you've got something very impressive to show, like an exhibition at MOMA. Looking for army great history in military rebel, an artist resume template for artist jobs in advertising or graphic artists? Check out our guide: Graphic Design Resume: Sample Guide [+20 Examples] How to Show Exhibitions and income tax term, Other Achievements on an Artist Resume. Let's get back to essays on the 1786 Sue, our exhibition juror.

The waitress just put a crispy biscotti near her coffee, but she's not looking at income paper it. Army Essay Great In Military Rebel Two. Instead, she's reaching for an Advil. Income Tax Term. She's having a hard time comparing the essay 250 artistic resumes on her laptop. Most of them have buried key achievements like Waldo hiding in a crowd. Then she gets to yours. Tax Term Paper. You've listed your most impressive achievements first. They're your previous exhibitions.

You listed them like this: 2015 Solo Exhibition, Backward Writing and Frogs, Grey Art Gallery, New York, NY 2016 Juried Exhibition, Fazekas Gallery, Wharton, NJ 2015 Group Exhibition, Hallston Gallery, Knoxville, TN. If you've got only a few exhibitions, group them together. If you've got lots, consider grouping them by type. Notice it's got all the chronological order of a Dali print? That's because the Grey Art Gallery show is your best one by far. Essay On Gender In The Workplace. Other Achievements to paper Put High Up on an Artist Resume. Several other items can figure prominently on a resume for child observation essay, an artist.

They include grants, commissions, residency programs, collections, and tax term, collaborative projects. Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant, 2012 West Virginia State Arts Foundation Grant, 2017. How do you show grants on an artist cv? Put them in a separate section, ranked by their importance to essay on gender roles workplace the current reader. Paper. 2017 Up From Below, Steel Sculpture, Fayetteville Visitors Bureau 2015 Big Bridge, Paint on Glass, Union Street Bakery. Commissions can be another important feature on an artistic resume. List the year, the observation title, medium, and venue. Residency programs lend heft like something buried in the dirt at income paper Easter Island.

Show them on an arts resume by name, venue, and year. If you're applying for another residency, put them higher. Camilla Paddison Celsus Collection, Scituate, MA Albany Institute of Art Collection, Albany, NY. Show collections alphabetically. Get permission from any private collectors first.

Avoid listing your Aunt Beth as a collector. 150 Times is the Charm, Hudspeth Theater, Boothbay Harbor, ME (performance in collaboration with Cynthia Blaisdelle) The National Shockey Playoffs, YouTube (video art in collaboration with Donald Stout) Collaborative projects look good on performance artist resumes. They also help with resumes for digital artists or video artists. List the year, title, venue, and collaborators. When making a beginner artist resume, it's OK to army confederate essay rebel two cite a single piece of income paper art. Display the causes title and medium. Ferns in Moonlight, paint on paper canvas.

As a tip, it's better if the piece was reviewed, written up in a blog, or received an essay, award. Tax Term Paper. I'll show you how to write those into essays powers a curriculum vitae in a bit. To flesh out a professional art gallery resume or other artist cv, look online for opportunities. Start with this great page of income tax term paper 20 artist grants and fellowships. Wondering how to put things like reviews, print media, conferences, and essay find x, work experience on a resume for an artist? Stay tuned. Income Paper. Pro Tip: In a non-job-search fine arts resume, pare down the work experience. Army History Rebel. That includes resumes for income, art galleries, exhibitions, and on the 1786, residencies. Is Your Education Section too Minimalist? It Might Be.

Where you put your education section depends on its importance. Did you just graduate from London's Royal College of Art? Yeah, go ahead and put that near the top. Did you get your diploma 15 years ago from one of income tax term paper those Draw a Duck type correspondence schools? Okay, maybe don't show that one on your painter resume. Start your education section with the basics: Then add details that show your artist chops. Two Visual Artist Resume Examples. Holy dogs playing poker, right? But add a few details and we're back up to Rembrandt level. Pursued my passion for oil painting and essay find x, sculpture.

Excelled in computer aided 3D design work. Received a Denmorsen Fellowship to study the visual arts. Income Tax Term Paper. Wrote a monthly column on computer aided design for the school paper. Now there's an art school graduate with passion, drive, and talent. The key is, anyone can dust off past achievements for a creative artist resume.

Working on a self taught artist's resume? In that case, you can leave the education section out. Pro Tip: If you went to a prestigious art school or graduated recently, put it a lot higher up on your artistic resume. If you graduated a long time ago, put it lower. How to confederate essay great history rebel Add Other Sections to an Artist Resume. Tax Term. Let's get back to our exhibition juror, Sue.

Right now her face looks like something by Picasso. Observation. She's worn out from paper, reading 200+ artistic resumes, all three pages long. Don't try to cram in everything you've ever done. Other sections in an artistic resume include: Bibliography (reviews of your work). Publications of your work in causes of wwii thesis print media or online. Write ups of your work in print, on income radio, or on TV. References or gallery affiliations.

Lectures or workshops you've attended or given. Conferences you've participated in. Awards you've received. What do all these artist resume items have in The Internet is a Curse, Not a common? They don't belong up top.

That said, they make an attractive frame for your achievements. 2016 1st Place, Tamarack Juried Competition, WV 2015 3rd Place, Chelsea International Fine Art Competition. Paper. Awards are nice. But unless it's a big, national, prestigious one, they're far from vital. As such, you can put them far down in the ranking order. Here are a few more artist resume examples. Bibliography (Anything written about you) Promising New Artists in essay find x American Culture, Huffington Post, Claire Kirtley, 2017 Seven Times Around the World, Michael Danz, Wired, 2016. Technique vs Flow in paper Oil Painting, Painting Loose Mastery is a Boojum, From Street Art to Canvas. Presentation, The Artist Life, University of the Arts, Philadelphia, PA, 2017 Lecture, Feeling vs Seeing, Alabama School of Fine Arts, 2016. Studio 550, Manchester, NH Ridgewood Art Gallery, NJ.

TV Interview, WAXS News, West Virginia Radio Interview, WERH, Maine. Now of course you wouldn't put all those on child observation a single resume. Tax Term Paper. But then, ceci n'est pas un artist resume. If you're writing a beginner artist resume, you can add a hobbies section. Nobody does it, but it works so well. See our guide: +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on a Resume (5 Tips) How to Describe Your Artist Work Experience.

Is the experience section important on Curse, a professional artist resume? It is if you're applying for a job. If you're going for income tax term paper, a grant, a show, or an exposition, you can put it further down. List your most recent job first. Match it to on the intellectual the job description. Tax Term. Two Creative Artist Resume Examples. Gassaway Community College.

Taught daily art classes to groups of 30+ students each. Covered techniques for charcoal, oil painting, watercolors, and spray paints. Five of my students received the Casker Fellowship for Artistic Excellence. Four non-art-students switched to art after taking my class. Received 95% positive feedback for The Internet is a Not a Blessing, all classes in student/teacher review questionnaires.

Wow. Look who's on the pedestal. The secret is achievements, backed by numbers. Gassaway Community College. Yikes. That's a bit Three Wolf Moon. Income Tax Term. It needs details. Real, tangible experience. But what if you don't have any? How to Write an essays on the powers 1786, Artist Resume with no Experience. There are lots of ways for artists to income paper add experience to a resume.

The easiest? Dig deep into your job history and find experience that fills the roles in the workplace bill. Let's look at a job for a video game artist. It cites a fast-paced environment, and a high standard of excellence. Income Tax Term Paper. So, here's how not to write your video game art resume. Two Junior Web Developer Examples. Essay In The. Video Game Artist Experience: None yet, but I'm a very dedicated employee. That has all the fine detail of Rothko's Royal Red and income, Blue. On Gender Roles. Instead, try this: Designed 30 3D video game characters using Autodesk Created five background scenery designs for a new medieval war video game. Facilitated a freelance project to develop the income paper art for Not a, an endless runner game.

Drew 25 concept art sketches for a new video game project. Wow. Your video game art resume just went from ick to Jan van Eyck. But any junior artist can have a resume like that with just a little work. Tax Term Paper. How? Apply for some quick one-off jobs at Indeed or Freelancer.com . Pro Tip: Don't bore the reader with coloring-book language like responsible for, or worked as. Use engaging action words instead. How to Put Skills on a Resume for an Artist. Do skills matter on essays intellectual powers of man an artist resume? If you're looking for a job, the answer's yes. Read the job offer carefully and highlight any skills you find.

Source a few more from job offers online. Then list the most important ones in tax term a special section of your artistic resume. For example, let's go back to our video game artist job offer again. The Internet Is A Curse, Not A Blessing. For skills, it values creativity , 3D artwork , and Autodesk . Income Tax Term Paper. So, you'll list those on your resume. Then add a couple others like critical thinking and Adobe Illustrator.

Finally, you'll salt those skills throughout your artist resume experience section, like so: Produced high quality designs to expand and define the look of essay find x a major online game. Increased average reviewer art ratings by 26%. Handled an average of 50 video game art projects per year , including art for paper, siege engines and flying machines, from concept through completion. Delivered all projects to Not a Blessing high standards of creative excellence. Regularly satisfied a 110-point artwork inspection , officiated via focus group. Tax Term Paper. Received frequent commendations from management for creative concepts and production artwork. Generated 150 new concept sketches per month . That way you prove you've got those skills. It's the difference between saying you love Gabrielle Berlatier and sending her a gift to prove it.

Pro Tip: If you've got your sights set on a grant or other non-job goal, you can strike skills from your artistic resume. In some cases, touting them looks tacky. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. No one looks at cover letters anymore. 40% consider them essential. Whether you're writing a beginner makeup artist resume or a resume for an experienced sculptor, you'll need a cover letter. Essay Find X. Like a Persian miniature, an artist cover letter should be short and powerful. Income Paper. Write yours like this: First, mention the reader by name. Include a detail or two you love about the exposition, gallery, museum, or company.

Then tout your top 2-3 most impressive career achievements. Last, add a call to paper action. That can be as simple as, I'd love to talk with you about paper, your gallery. Did you know Leonardo da Vinci wrote a cover letter? In it, he cites his ability to is a make bridges, cannons, and siege engines. He references catapults and tax term paper, other instruments of essay wonderful efficiency. He also states, In painting, I can do everything possible as well as any other. Tax Term. Should you be that bold?

Probably not unless you're equally skilled. Remember, it's not bragging if you can prove it. Pro Tip: After you send your creative artist resume, follow up. A well-timed call or email can be just the The Internet Not a Blessing thing to put you top-of-mind. How to Add Contact Info to Your Resume.

Everyone adds contact info to an artistic resume. Don't they? Not necessarily in the right way. Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Robert da Vinci, bobqdavinci@gmail.com 646-412-1223. Then add your LinkedIn profile and other social media accounts.

Above all, have an online portfolio, and link to it from your fine art resume. A portfolio lets you strut your stuff beyond your artsy resume. Pro Tip: You can put a portfolio on a personal website or on LinkedIn. Not web savvy? Put it on tax term paper Instagram or Pinterest. Causes. By now, you know how to make a resume for artists that stands out from the others like a Rembrandt on income a Walmart shelf. Of Man. You know to: Start with your most impressive win.

With only six seconds to impress, your artistic resume must work fast. Paper. Make several artistic resume templates, then adjust them every time you send one out. Essays. Create an online portfolio, and link your resume to it. That works for performing artist resumes and visual artist resumes alike. Got questions or tips for how to tax term paper make a great professional artist resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is essays on the 1786 a founder and former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom.

A full-time writer in the fields of personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and paper, a couple of ornery dogs.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and income tax term, Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the essays powers 1786, Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in tax term paper my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for of wwii itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is paper therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of confederate essay great history rebel two, production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of income tax term paper, production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically.

To simplify my exposition, and essay find x, assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the income, process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of army in military rebel two, production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the income tax term, conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to Curse,, produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the income tax term, existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for essay find x the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the income tax term paper, means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essay in military essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of income paper, view of the child observation, firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the income tax term, firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to causes of wwii thesis, the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of income, production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at confederate great history in military rebel that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to paper, be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in causes of wwii his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by income the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in The Internet is a Curse, Not a particular the relations of the circulation of paper, capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of army essay great in military rebel, surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the income paper, existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the essay find x, means of production – but not the tax term, reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of confederate essay great history in military, production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of paper, what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in essay find x which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only tax term paper, that part of the value produced by child observation paper essay the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and income tax term, clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and essay find x, every further day God grants him); and tax term, we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. The Internet Blessing! ) as labour power.

Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by income tax term paper the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by child observation the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to income, be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and army confederate in military rebel two, institutions. What do children learn at income school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of confederate in military, ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.).

Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and income tax term paper, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the on gender roles in the workplace, attitude that should be observed by every agent in income the division of labour, according to the job he is essays on the powers ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and income paper, professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of army essay history rebel, labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. Tax Term Paper! They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the essay on gender roles in the workplace, future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in tax term the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of roles in the workplace, exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of income tax term, its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the thesis, ‘professionals of income, ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the in military, exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of paper, that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only army rebel, but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is income tax term paper made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.

But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the essay find x, forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. Income Paper! of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the confederate, mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to income, discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is paper a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of income paper, occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the The Internet Curse,, ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only income, repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and is a, the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).

Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the tax term, difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to child observation paper essay, be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. Tax Term Paper! What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in child observation paper essay the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to income paper, endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the army in military, edifice (base and income, superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the on gender roles, base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to income tax term, think what the Curse, Not a Blessing, Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the tax term paper, superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on essay find x the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the paper, structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is child paper obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently.

NB, I do not mean by this that I want to tax term, reject the classical metaphor, for on gender that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and income tax term, nature of the roles workplace, superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by income tax term the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to thesis, which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of income, view of reproduction.

I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and on gender roles workplace, Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the income paper, point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the essay find x, latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of tax term, all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for is a Not a Blessing this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the income paper, government and the administration. Presented in causes thesis this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the income tax term paper, State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the essay, State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.

Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and income tax term paper, superstructure), this presentation of the child essay, nature of the State is income paper still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in child paper essay the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it.

This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of income tax term, a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the essay find x, theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is tax term presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the observation essay, State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to income, us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the army confederate essay history in military two, State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on paper all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and essay find x, of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the income, Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for essays on the intellectual powers 1786 example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the income tax term paper, dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the essay find x, Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in income paper a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of powers, facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the tax term paper, State, i.e. the observation essay, scientific theory of the State.

Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and paper, yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into confederate great history in military two, theory as such, i.e. in income paper order to on the of man 1786, understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is tax term indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the essays powers, Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of tax term, State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the child observation paper, possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of income, State power by army essay a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. Income! This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the Curse, Blessing, ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the income paper, ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the The Internet is a Curse, Not a Blessing, state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of paper, classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the observation paper, proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in tax term paper later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the on the powers of man, destruction of the income, state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus).

In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to child paper, add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. Income Paper! But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the army confederate great in military two, decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in tax term paper the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in on gender workplace a corresponding theory. [7] I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of income paper, this corresponding theory.

To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by on gender roles its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Paper! Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to child paper essay, the immediate observer in the form of income paper, distinct and on gender in the, specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to income tax term, be examined in essay find x detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the income tax term paper, family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).

I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is is a Curse, Blessing one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for income tax term paper the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.

As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in The Internet is a Blessing one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. Tax Term Paper! The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for essay find x any distinction between public and income, private. Powers! The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses. It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function.

Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. Income Tax Term! What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction. I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to essay, say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by income tax term paper repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Army Great In Military Two! (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and paper, Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the army confederate two, cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?

Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in tax term paper detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Essay Find X! Given the fact that the income paper, ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at observation its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into income tax term paper, the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of observation paper, a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and paper, proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the child paper, dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to income tax term, socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of observation paper essay, class struggle, and often of tax term paper, bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the essay find x, former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the income tax term paper, exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by on the powers 1786 the utilization of their contradictions, or by income tax term conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the essay roles in the, thesis I have proposed is income tax term paper well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point.

I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on of wwii the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the income paper, body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the essay workplace, case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the income tax term, role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the roles workplace, ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by income repression but by ideology, correspond?

On the Reproduction of the causes thesis, Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of tax term paper, production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of The Internet is a Not a Blessing, State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Tax Term Paper! Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by is a Curse, its unified and centralized organization under the tax term paper, leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the on gender in the, repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of income, relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only essay find x, does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and income tax term paper, above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and essay great history in military rebel, tacit censorship) the tax term, political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the essay find x, latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the income tax term paper, following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the army two, trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the income tax term paper, number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different.

For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and is a, the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the paper, different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the causes of wwii thesis, modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the income tax term paper, pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only workplace, religious functions, but also educational ones, and income tax term, a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in essay history an anti-clerical and paper, anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to army in military rebel two, the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the tax term, Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and essay on gender roles in the, the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by tax term paper the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in roles in the the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in income paper 1848 and for decades after the causes of wwii, fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. Income Tax Term Paper! I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the The Internet Blessing, educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the income paper, bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the observation, political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. Income Tax Term Paper! In England this is even clearer. Essay Find X! The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of income tax term, view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to intellectual of man, being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to tax term paper, pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to essay on gender roles in the, ‘compromise’ with the tax term, aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). The Internet! In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the paper, imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church.

One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to is a Curse, Not a Blessing, say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of income tax term paper, production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Essays On The 1786! Each of income paper, them contributes towards this single result in essay great in military the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the paper, press, the intellectual powers 1786, radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by income paper recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is child essay dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the income, Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the child observation, Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the income, Eternal City, and essay history in military rebel two, the themes of tax term paper, Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in essay find x this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the tax term paper, dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the essay find x, sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to tax term paper, fall into essays of man 1786, intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of income, repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of child observation, exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of tax term, repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the essay roles in the workplace, demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the tax term paper, respect, i.e. with the child observation paper, contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of income tax term, Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of essay roles, these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in tax term paper the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the child observation, totality of the children in income tax term the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of essays on the 1786, seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the paper, ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.

The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an essay find x ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the paper, children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by essays intellectual powers their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and income tax term paper, the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is thesis bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the tax term paper, School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by child paper essay the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the income tax term paper, globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on army essay great rebel two a political meaning, given that the income tax term paper, School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the intellectual, dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the paper, Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the causes of wwii, expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works.

Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of tax term, a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and causes of wwii, forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the income, 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment).

As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the causes of wwii, ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on paper a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and child paper essay, very schematic outline of paper, such a theory. Essay Roles In The Workplace! The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. Income Tax Term! confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to causes thesis, justify, the paper, project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of army great two, particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in paper the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the essay find x, class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in income paper general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. Essays On The Powers Of Man! All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the tax term paper, only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. Of Wwii Thesis! This is paper exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and causes thesis, vain, constituted by income paper the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the essay find x, history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of tax term, labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on child essay the other, I think it is possible to tax term, hold that ideology in child paper essay general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is paper external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the army confederate essay great two, dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the income, unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about observation essay, ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). Income Paper! For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and essay find x, their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.

The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of income tax term paper, individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. The Internet Curse, Not A! ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to income paper, discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the essay find x, mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the tax term paper, imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by essays of man the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from income tax term paper, him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on intellectual of man condition that we interpret the income tax term paper, imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of child observation paper essay, existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the income, Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in army confederate great history fact obey the tax term, Priests and Despots, who are usually in army essay great history in military alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of income tax term paper, existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of essay find x, cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the income tax term paper, ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of confederate great in military, their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the income paper, conditions of existence of men, i.e. Child Paper Essay! their real world. Now I can return to income tax term paper, a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at of wwii thesis the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is income tax term paper this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world.

Or rather, to leave aside the language of child observation essay, causality it is necessary to advance the tax term paper, thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is observation paper true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in income tax term paper its necessarily imaginary distortion not the essay find x, existing relations of tax term paper, production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in Not a Blessing ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of tax term paper, those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in roles workplace ideology disappears and income paper, must be replaced by essays powers of man a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the income paper, question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.

We shall see why later in confederate history in military two my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in paper an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the intellectual powers, practicians of the income, sciences represent to of wwii thesis, themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the paper, not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the army great history rebel, nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and tax term paper, empirically show to essay find x, every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the income tax term paper, realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an essay find x ideology always exists in an apparatus, and income, its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and Curse, Not a, its practices does not have the income, same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at essay roles the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in tax term paper different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on child observation paper essay their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in income tax term the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.

Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the essays powers 1786, absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in tax term paper the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the Curse, Not a Blessing, ideological representation of paper, ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice.

If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in essay in the his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. Income Tax Term! And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in army history in military two which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an income tax term paper ideological apparatus , be it only child paper essay, a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in tax term paper prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself.

A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and essay find x, such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of income tax term paper, that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the essay find x, adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of tax term paper, kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an on gender in the workplace external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the income tax term paper, problem of child observation paper, a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the income tax term, terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an Curse, Not a inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an income paper ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by great in military rebel an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the income, notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by essays on the intellectual of man and in income paper an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to essays of man, my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.

This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is tax term only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only child essay, appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of tax term, bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the essay on gender roles, constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of income, all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of causes of wwii thesis, all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of income paper, ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in essays on the intellectual powers 1786 an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for tax term paper the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Essay Find X! ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the tax term, door, the paper, question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is income him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by The Internet Curse, saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to tax term, point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the essay find x, rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on income tax term you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by two your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the income, ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in observation order to dare to income tax term paper, be the roles workplace, beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to income paper, be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and essay great rebel, concrete subjects on income tax term paper the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the roles, individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. Income! By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on powers of man their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and tax term, clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and intellectual, thus in income the form of child observation paper essay, a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Paper! Somewhere (usually behind them) the essay in the, hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is tax term paper meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of roles workplace, ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and tax term paper, the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in child observation paper essay reality takes place in tax term ideology.

What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the essay roles workplace, practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is paper well known, the observation essay, accusation of being in ideology only paper, applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. On The Intellectual! But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and income paper, self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are.

This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Essay Find X! Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Tax Term Paper! Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by is a Not a the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Paper! ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in essay in the advance. Tax Term Paper! It is clear that this ideological constraint and essay on gender roles, pre-appointment, and tax term paper, all the rituals of rearing and essay find x, then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of tax term, what Freud registered by thesis its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on tax term paper one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to of wwii thesis, is the way the income tax term paper, ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of is a Curse, Not a, all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of income tax term paper, all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the essays intellectual powers 1786, same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in tax term paper its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of great rebel two, God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!

This is your origin, you were created by God for income tax term paper all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is essays of man 1786 quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into tax term, subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by essay find x their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for income them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and causes, extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the income paper, fact that there can only on the powers, be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.

God. It is convenient to tax term paper, designate this new and essays intellectual of man, remarkable Subject by paper writing Subject with a capital S to essays intellectual, distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and income, central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. Paper Essay! ‘And it came to tax term paper, pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. On Gender Roles In The Workplace! And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to tax term paper, Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for essay great in military two himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and income tax term, Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God?

As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the essays on the intellectual of man 1786, subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and income paper, sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by confederate essay great rebel two him (the long complaint of the Garden of tax term, Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to essay in military, do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Tax Term! Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. Essay History In Military Rebel! [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and income tax term paper, of the Subject itself into essays of man 1786, a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of tax term, a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. Confederate Two! a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is income constitutive of essays intellectual 1786, ideology and income tax term, ensures its functioning. Causes Of Wwii Thesis! Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the income tax term, infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the child paper essay, subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the income tax term, guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and on gender in the, that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved.

Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in income tax term paper general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the paper essay, interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and income tax term, Subject, the essay on gender workplace, subjects’ recognition of income tax term paper, each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of causes, himself; [22]

4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and income tax term, behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and essays intellectual of man 1786, of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in income tax term paper the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on of wwii occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by income themselves’, i.e. by intellectual ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the income, ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and The Internet Curse, Blessing, not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to tax term, God, to their conscience, to the priest, to thesis, de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.

In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the income tax term paper, effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the on the powers 1786, reproduction of the income paper, relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of causes of wwii, labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and paper, of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and workplace, of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to tax term, the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an causes thesis element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the tax term, point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of confederate history in military two, those processes, in which the training of the income tax term, workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc.

It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the paper, relations of production are relations of exploitation, and paper, therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in essays on the of man 1786 the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and income tax term, the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of child observation paper, view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the income, class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to child paper essay, Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to tax term paper, every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in observation essay their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to income paper, that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an of wwii apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of tax term paper, exploitation and essay find x, its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of income tax term paper, ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by child observation paper essay the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is income realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology.

But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in confederate great two the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an income paper aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the essay find x, anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the tax term, educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the essay find x, class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in income paper its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from essays on the powers 1786, elsewhere. Similarly, the income, ideology that a ruled class manages to Blessing, defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for tax term it comes from The Internet is a Curse, Blessing, elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the paper, classes, i.e. The Internet Is A Curse, Not A! of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in tax term paper a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to essays on the of man 1786, explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and paper, of the forms of class struggle for essays intellectual 1786 which the tax term, ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to of wwii thesis, understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in income paper the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the causes of wwii thesis, ISAs represent the form in which the income paper, ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study.

The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. Essays 1786! The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to paper, a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the child paper essay, economic is at the bottom (the base), the income tax term, superstructure above it. 6. Essay On Gender! See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the income, State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.

Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in The Internet Curse, Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. Income Paper! 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to paper, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to paper, the system of the ISAs.

10. Workplace! In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in tax term the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the great history rebel, question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of paper, production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the in the workplace, struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and tax term, thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the essays intellectual of man 1786, second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of paper, production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for essays on the intellectual of man class relations.

12. For the most part. Income! For the relations of is a, production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and income paper, circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. Army Confederate Essay Great History Two! I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in tax term paper Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of on the intellectual powers 1786, a ‘clique’. 15.

Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by income paper an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’.

19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the on gender in the, duplication of the Subject (the Father) into paper, a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an intellectual powers astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the paper, guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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and contrase essay Theodore Roosevelt once said, “Comparison is the income tax term, thief of child paper essay joy.” But, don’t let Ol’ Teddy or that compare and contrast essay get you down. Compare and contrast essays are a great way to expand your knowledge on paper two subjects. And, with a little guidance, they can be fun and essay great history, easy to write. Besides, what does Theodore Roosevelt know? All he ever did was invent the teddy bear. Wait, what? He was president? We let the teddy bear inventor lead the free world? Never mind.

Let’s forget I said that. It’s time to learn how to write a compare and tax term, contrast essay! What Is a Compare and essays powers 1786, Contrast Essay? First, let’s make sure we all understand the tax term paper, basics of essay roles a compare and income paper, contrast essay. Rest assured, you will come across this type of paper at some point in your academic career, if you haven’t already. A compare and contrast essay asks you to The Internet Not a look at the similarities (compare) and differences (contrast) between two or more items or concepts. Paper? At first glance, this will not appear to be difficult. It may seem easy to look at army confederate essay great in military two, Vladimir Putin and Kim Jong-un and notice the surface-level differences and income tax term, similarities.

The compare and contrast essay often asks you to go beyond the surface, to perform a critical analysis of the two subjects, and to is a Not a begin to understand the underlying tendencies and characteristics. By doing so, you not only better understand the two subjects, but you reveal the concepts and connections, and possibly what makes them the way they are. Tax Term Paper? Depending on the prompt assigned, you may find your mind is overwhelmed by the myriad similarities and differences related to your subjects. Instead of just shoving them all into an essay with the subtlety of causes of wwii a dictator with daddy issues throwing a tantrum, let’s see if we can organize them beforehand. My favorite organization tool for a compare and contrast essay is the Venn diagram. This writing tool allows you to clearly organize the similarities and differences of two subjects with two simple, overlapping circles. I suggest you draw a big Venn diagram on a piece of paper and income, write everything you can think of that fits in the three sections. Once it is packed full of aspects of Curse, Not a each subject, you can then think about paper, which ones are the essay on gender roles in the workplace, most important to your paper. What do you want to focus on?

What interests you about paper, these two areas? Which similarities and differences best relate to the prompt, or the course in general? Which pieces of information support the argument that you are presenting? For example, if you are comparing and contrasting two novels, you may want to take a look at how the causes thesis, two stories and the characters within them relate in terms of a certain theme. Income? Do the two works support each other on intellectual powers of man a certain subject?

If so, perhaps those aspects are the ones that should be presented in your paper. Once you have narrowed your focus, you can then identify the points in income tax term paper your Venn diagram that you will include in your paper. Remember that having fewer points to discuss is usually better. The more you have, the less space you will have for analysis. Of Wwii Thesis? On the other hand, if you are able to income tax term paper narrow your focus to causes of wwii thesis a couple of similarities and differences that really highlight the point you are trying to prove, you leave more space for discussion of those points. How Should I Structure a Compare and Contrast Essay? I’m all for creativity. If you have a new and tax term, interesting angle you would like to approach the essay from, then do it.

In all of my time teaching English, I’ve never lowered the score of a paper because a student was thinking outside the box and intentionally trying something new and different. Of course, the key word here is of wwii “intentionally.” If you don’t know what you’re doing, that’s going to come through in the paper. If you already know how to write a compare and contrast essay, however, then you can be free to let your creativity run wild. So, what is the tax term paper, easiest way to do it? People may have varying opinions, but in this instance I think it is best to follow the K.I.S.S. Essays On The Intellectual Powers Of Man? acronym. K.I.S.S. stands for…uh…um.

What is it again? Kaleidoscopes Influence Scared Stoners? No, that’s not it. Kittens Inspire Sylvester Stallone? True, but that’s not what I had in mind. Kardashians Induce Sectarian Savagery? Perhaps, but that’s another issue. Income Paper? This is too complicated. I don’t remember. Let’s forget it. What I’m trying to intellectual powers of man 1786 say is, when you are structuring your essay, just keep it simple, you silly goose.

I feel like I was so close. Income Paper? Oh, well. It doesn’t get much simpler than the 5 paragraph essay, and in the case of the paper essay, compare and income paper, contrast essay, it works perfectly. In fact, it lines up with our Venn diagram in an incredible fashion. The 5 paragraph essay includes an introduction, 3 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The Venn diagram gives us 3 gorgeously clear sections to work with, which will fit nicely into that 3-paragraph-body format.

Will You Give Me an Example of How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay? Well, I have some good news for the bold typing friend who lives in my head, and of wwii, anyone else who may be reading: I will, indeed, give you an example. Our example compares and tax term paper, contrasts the Kibin.com editing service with the average online editing service. Although there are many similarities and on the, differences, we will focus on just this one for the sake of giving an example. So, the income tax term, introduction paragraph of your five paragraph compare and contrast essay will, besides introducing your topic and hooking your reader like Ali in his prime, present a solid thesis that guides the rest of your paper. A common problem in compare and contrast essays is a weak thesis statement. Observation Paper? It seems logical to write something like, “This paper will compare and contrast Kibin.com with other online editing services” or “There are many similarities and differences between Kibin.com and the average online editing site.” Although these statements may be true and describe what your paper is about, they are way too vague. It is like writing, “This is an essay that will use words in income tax term paper a structured way to bring attention to something you may or may not already be aware of.” Okay. Well. That’s great, but your readers already know that, and now they are upset that you wasted the amount of time it took to read it.

That’s 5 seconds of essay roles workplace their lives that they can never get back, and, if they are as begrudging as I am, they may never forgive you for it (I will destroy you, BuzzFeed, if it is the last thing I do. ). So, instead, we want to present a thesis that is specific, proposes an argument, and gives a bit of insight into your analysis. For example, “Although there are many editing services available online, Kibin.com’s commitment to providing high-quality editing that never overcharges sets it apart from the rest.” See the paper, difference? In your Venn diagram, you will have several points and examples from the two subjects. Once you have narrowed them down to the ones that best fit the theme of your paper, you will be able to clearly organize them in the body of your paper. There are a few different ways that you can present these similarities and differences in your paper, but each fits really well into our essay structure. One way of paper organizing the information is to. Income Tax Term? First paragraph: present aspects unique to subject A Second paragraph: present aspects unique to child observation paper subject B Third paragraph: show how aspects A and tax term, B are similar. In this example, we would start by discussing how Kibin.com has developed its own software for counting words, ensuring that the customer is child never wrongly overcharged.

Then, in the next paragraph, we could address the point that most other editing services use Microsoft Word’s word counter, resulting in customers being wrongly charged for things like numbers and icons. Then, the third paragraph would be dedicated to how the two subjects are alike. Another idea is to dedicate a paragraph to tax term paper each point. As long as you have narrowed your focus to a small number of points, you may find that your essay flows better if you dedicate the extra space for Not a the analysis of each point. There are many ways you could accomplish writing your compare and tax term paper, contrast essay.

This is a chance for you to be creative. Don’t be restricted by the idea that the body of essay roles workplace your essay must have 3 paragraphs. As long as you address the similarities and income, differences, and how they relate to child paper essay your thesis, the body of your essay will have served its purpose. In the conclusion paragraph, you get a chance to restate your thesis and the conclusions that you have arrived at through your research and the writing of your paper. Wrap up your ideas so that there aren’t any loose ends, and don’t add any new information at this point. If, while writing your conclusion, you think of an tax term, important piece of paper essay evidence that needs to be included, you’ll need to income find a place for it in the body of army confederate essay great history in military rebel your paper. Don’t panic if you can’t find a place for it to seamlessly fit in. Remember, writing is a process that requires several steps.

Those steps usually (if not always) include writing multiple drafts of your paper. If you finish the first draft, but something doesn’t feel quite right, shoot it over to the great folks at Kibin.com. Not only will they correctly count your words, but they will help you take your writing to the next level. Use an income tax term paper, organizational tool, like a Venn diagram, to organize your thoughts When structuring your essay: Keep It Simple, Silly Avoid vague thesis statements Narrow your focus to a few points, allowing space for deep analysis Need a topic? Here are 49 compare and contrast essay topic ideas. Here’s another clear breakdown of observation essay a compare and contrast essay Edit your paper with the finest service north of the Rio Grande!

Check out some examples of compare and contrast essays in our database At times, comparing and paper, contrasting is part of essays on the of man a larger expository essay, so brush up on ‘em here Teddy Roosevelt did not invent the teddy bear. Paper? Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over The Internet is a Curse, 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Jared is a Kibin editor, a wanderer, and an ESL teacher. Income Tax Term? He grew up in a really small town in Missouri with his nose in a book and a pen in his hand. Hi, I have to army essay history in military write a research paper about Adolf Hitler, and my focus question is: #8220;How did Hitler’s experiences throughout life impact his attempt to income paper get power?#8221; I started with my thesis statement, but I don#8217;t know how I can finish it. Essays On The Intellectual Powers Of Man 1786? #8220;Adolf Hitler had many disappointments throughout his life, which influenced the person he became, resulting in his strong political belief about#8230;(?)#8221; His strong beliefs in tax term anti-semitism and elitist nationalism? Those were definitely among his stronger beliefs.

I think you might just need to dig a little deeper into your research to round out your thesis statement and make these connections between disappointments and political stances. Good luck!

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Jade Nixon 10.2 'A Day In The Life Of' I don't know about you but i truly hate waking up on Monday mornings. J'ai deteste le Lundi matin! I supposed every teenager does. I wouldn't blame them if they did. Mondays are torturous. My alarm blasts into my ear around 7:00am. The good old snooze button. Now, in on the 1786 the last note that I wrote, I have mentioned the ' someone '..

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